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Monday, October 31, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 3

7.92 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - vastutas tu yadi sundara-prakṛtir api patir adāsyat tad api rucir nābhaviṣyat | mac-cetasaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaika-grāhitvād ity ābhyantaro vicāraḥ -
If the gopīs would cheat their husbands with Kṛṣṇa because they are ugly or nasty it would not be a compliment for Kṛṣṇa, so Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda says here: “Actually, even if my husband were beautiful in form or nature still I would have no taste for him. My heart is exclusively captured by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This is her inner consideration.”

8.66  Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - ahaṁ patra-hārī śrī-rādhāyā dūty asmi kim iti mayi lāmpaṭyaṁ tanoṣi | dūtyaḥ prāṇān varam arpayanti, na tu tanum iti dūtī-svabhāvaṁ jānāsy eveti sambhrāntāṁ rasāla-mañjarīṁ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ prāha—dūtī-paddhatim iti – This may have inspired Ānanda Gopāl Goswāmī in a similar purport on Vilāpa Kusumāñjali. 'Rasāla mañjarī told Kṛṣṇa - "I am a letter carrying messenger girl of Rādhā's - why are you fooling around with me? Dūtis can give their lives but not their bodies."

8.67 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - gṛhīta-vastraṁ śrī-kṛṣṇaṁ prati rati-mañjarī prāha—prasīdeti | he nirdaya, ahaṁ sampraty asustha-śarīrāsmīti bhāvaḥ - One should not make love while sick. Another instance of mañjarī bhāva being tad tad bhāvecchātmikā: "When Kṛṣṇa grabs Rati Mañjarī's cloth, she says: " Be merciful to me, O cruel one. Today I am feeling sick."

8.84 sakhyo`pi dvividhāḥ—śrī-kṛṣṇasyātilobhanīya-gātrā nātilobhanīya-gātrāś ca. tatra prathamāsu prathama evāgrahaḥ, dvitīyāsu dvitīya eva. sukumāryānayā svakāntāya kāma-samudāya-sampūrṇa-rati-dānāsamarthayā tad-arthaṁ vayam api niyujyāmahe tad asyāḥ sāhāyyaṁ kurma iti nāyikātve prathamā īṣad-āgrahavatyo bhavanti. dvitīyās tu sveṣu śrī-kṛṣṇa-lobhasyālpatāṁ jānatyaḥ svais tādṛśa-sāhāyyān atisambhavaṁ manyamānās tāṁ tat-sakhīś ca saubhāgyādhikāḥ sva-prayatnaiḥ śrī-kṛṣṇena sambhujyaiva tāṁ sukhayitum icchantyo nāyikātvena āgrahavatyo na bhavantīty - There are two kinds of sakhīs – those with bodies very desirable to Kṛṣṇa and others with bodies not so desirable for Kṛṣṇa. The first group is eager to please Kṛṣṇa directly, the others want to please Him indirectly [by serving other sakhīs]. ‘By this small girl it is impossible to fully satisfy all the lover’s desires, hence let us assist the heroine here."
They understand they are less desirable by Kṛṣṇa than the others, who are more fortunate. They do not desire to be nāyikās themselves.”
This does sound like mañjarī-bhāva, but it is neither confirmed or denied by Viśvanātha. I doubt it myself, because the same Viśvanātha writes in Kṛṣṇa Bhāvanāmṛta: (3.2-3): 

tā vidyud udyuti jayi prapadaika rekhā vaidagdhya eva kila mūrtibhṛtas tathāpi
yūtheśvarītvam api samyag arocayitvā dāsyāmṛtābdhim anusasnur ajasram asyāḥ

"Each line on these mañjarīs' toes defeats the bright splendour of lightning. They are cleverness personified and although they are qualified to be groupleaders of gopīs (yūtheśvarīs) they have no taste for this, but are always immersed in the nectar-ocean of Śrī Rādhikā's service."
From this it is very clear that the manjaris are supremely attractive themselves, so they do not seem to answer the description of the first group of sakhīs above.

8.88 The nitya sakhī or mañjarī refuses to enjoy with Kṛṣṇa – in his commentary, Viśvanāth Cakravartī writes - tvayā saha svāṅga-saṅga-sukhād api jāla-randhrādau śrī-rādhāṅga-saṅga-darśanotthaṁ sukham adhikam anubhūtaṁ man-manasā nahi labdhādhika-sukhā janā alpe sukhe pravartanta iti bhāvaḥ. tataś ca māstu tava sukhaṁ mat-sukhaṁ tu kurv iti śrī-rādhikā-datta-cara-mantraṇena śrī-kṛṣṇena sā balā sambhuktaiveti jñeyam ‘More than my own bodily pleasures with Kṛṣṇa I enjoy to peep through the slits of the kuñja to see Kṛṣṇa enjoying with Śrī Rādhā. Why would my mind accept a lesser happiness when a greater one is available? But then Śrī Rādhā may advise her: ‘Leave your own happiness and make Me happy instead. Then that girl had herself enjoyed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa anyway.”

8.115  Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā -  ābhīra, he abhimanyo sūrya-pūjāyāṁ snānādy-arthaṁ kapilā-dugdham apekṣitam atas tvaṁ gāṁ dugdhvā paya āgamaya ānaya | aruṇām iti | yā hi sarvāṅgeṣv aruṇa-varṇā, atha ca piṅgākṣī saiva pataṅgasya sūryasya priyā kapileti tām anyaḥ paricetuṁ na ṣakṣyatīty anyo na preṣaṇīya iti bhāvaḥ
In aṣṭakālīya līlā it is mentioned that Rādhikā is ordered to go out and get milk from a Kapila [brown] cow. From this commentary it becomes clear why – a cow which is red in all its limbs and has brown eyes is dear to Sūrya deva. Its milk is required for Sūrya pūjā.

8.120  Viśvanāth Cakravartī quotes Garuḍa Purāṇa:
śuṣkaṁ māṁsaṁ striyo vṛddhā bālārkas taruṇaṁ dadhi
prabhāte maithunaṁ nidrā sadyaḥ prāṇaharāṇi ṣaṭ
"Dry meat, an old woman, the sunrise, fresh yoghurt, sleeping or mating after dawn take away one’s life."

8.127 A kṛṣṇa snehādhikā sakhī does feel much for her sakhī-groupleader, but still feels slightly more affection for Kṛṣṇa .

8.131 Vice versa for the sakhī-snehādhikā. Kṛṣṇa will love you automatically if you love Rādhā.

8.137 – Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - nanu tāḥ katham anugamanānarhāḥ? ucyate rāgānugīya-bhakta-mate śrī-kṛṣṇād anyūna-prītimattayaivānujigamiṣitā gopī khalv anugamyate. tasmān nyūna-prītyāpy anugamane vācye vaidhād rāgasya ko viśeṣaḥ? bhaktānugatiṁ vinā vaidha-bhakter apy asiddheḥ. tasmāc chrī-kṛṣṇe`dhikā sakhī tad-anujigamiṣubhir janaiḥ śrī-kṛṣṇād anyūna-prīti-viṣayīkartavyā.
How are they to be followed? It is said that in the opinion of the rāgānugā-bhakta one should follow a gopī whom one loves not less than Śrī Kṛṣṇa. If one follows a gopī in spite of having less love for her than for  Kṛṣṇa  then what is the difference between vaidhi-bhakti and rāgānugā bhakti? Even vaidhi-bhakti fails to lead to perfection without following devotees. Hence in rāgānugā-bhakti, devotees who wish to follow a sakhī with more love for Kṛṣṇa should not have less love for that sakhi than for Kṛṣṇa."
From this it appears that following in the footsteps of a kṛṣṇa-snehadhika, bhakti is only rāgānugā bhakti if one loves the kṛṣṇa-snehādhikā rāgātmikā devotee more than Kṛṣṇa.

9.43 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - 
"As long as there is no mixing of bhakti with the antaḥkaraṇa (subtle body of mind, intelligence, consciousness), the functions of the mind such as attachment and hatred will remain as material anarthas. When sulfur is added to mercury there is no immediate mixing, but after repeated rubbing, after a long time, they mix. Sulfur then gives up its original nature and takes a different form. Similarly the material nature of the antaḥkaraṇa is gradually destroyed and becomes spiritual. Just as sulfur and mercury eventually become one substance as collyrium, so bhakti and the antaḥkaraṇa become one as prema. Though mercury does not combine with other substances, sulfur transforms by rubbing into another form, and by heating, it gradually matures and takes on a unique form and name. The uncontaminated Lord, in the form of chanting or other processes, enters the antaḥkaraṇa endowed with attraction through the ears or other senses and rubbing against it by its power, makes the antaḥkaraṇa take on a spiritual form. By heating that combination till it matures to higher and higher states, it then attains the unique forms and names of prema, sneha, praṇaya, rāga, anurāga and mahābhāva. Just as the mature combination takes on varieties by mixing with favorable elements, so prema takes on forms such as dasya or sakhya by mixing with bhavas of a servant, friend, parent or lover. The prema of the sādhana-siddhas has been described in this way. What doubt is there then about the prema of the nitya-siddhas?

9.48- Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - 
"A follower of Vṛndā, a deity of the forest, curious about the conclusions of prema, asks “If Kṛṣṇa attains happiness by enjoyment with Candrāvalī, which is also your goal—to give him happiness--then why are you inimical to her? Why do you get angry when he frustrates your desires and meets with her?”
Rādhā teaches her the principle. "Candrāvalī can also mean the moon in the twelve months. The moon is always endowed with faulty marks. Or, she deals with Kṛṣṇa as a neutral party, because of having great respect. The moon is impure, having marks on its surface. She is devoid of the natural crookedness of prema, which moves crooked like a snake. By its nature the moon gives suffering, being cool. Or she is without intelligence. Or by her respect, friendliness is lost. The moon or she is skilful at closing the beautiful lotuses. Or the word vaidagdhi can mean the opposite. She is skilful at closing lotuses because of incompetence. She, the lotus, does not give happiness to the Kṛṣṇa-bee. The moon is brilliant in the night, not the day. In her mind (antara) she is joyful at seeing her faults as good qualities. She does not see her neutral nature as a fault. The moon appears (sphuraṇam) in the eastern direction (harer āśayaḥ). Or she has a slight appearance of desire for Kṛṣṇa, but not an actual desire. She should produce another form. Seeing the moon, or considering Candrāvalī, who can tolerate this? One can tolerate her on earth, but all will discover her malice. Therefore she should not criticize again. Let her be like that. Her relationship with Kṛṣṇa will be finished. It is not unsuitable that I hate her. What is tasty to eat, one takes and prepares. If someone produces occasions for taking things which are tasteless, then will one become angry or not at that person? Consider this and then tell me."
In this way she revealed the truth about prema.

Monday, October 17, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 2

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 3.37:
aprasūtikā iti | tāsāṁ puṣpodgamābhāvān nitya-vilāsārthaṁ yoga-māyayaiva sampāditatvāt -
“The gopīs never delivered babies because they have no menstruation. Yogamāyā arranged this to make them suitable for eternal enjoyment (by Kṛṣṇa. In this way they never get pregnant and Kṛṣṇa fulfills His status of dhīra lalita, who is niścinta, carefree).”

3.38| tac ca sat-kula-kanyānāṁ tāsāṁ stanādy-udghāṭanāsambhavād eva
Jīva Goswāmī: “A girl of good family does not have such fully developed breasts at the marriageable age.” This means that high class girls were married earlier than low caste girls.

manuṣya-deva-gandharvādi-janmāntaram ity arthaḥ | yad vā, martyā mānuṣyāḥ amartyā hariṇyādayaḥ | hiraṇyāṅgī haridvarṇā hariṇī-garbha-sambhavā iti bṛhad-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikokteḥ |

“Recent gopīs [that appear with Kṛṣṇa for the first time in His manifest pastimes] may appear from animal wombs, like for instance Hiranyāṅgī, who is mentioned in Śrī Rūpa Goswāmī’s Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Gaṇoddeśa Dīpikā [101] as appearing from the womb of a deer. If that means she appeared from the deer as a human or a deer is not clear here but I suppose she was human still.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Tika on UN 3.49-51 -
bhāvini rāmāvatāre rāma-saundarya-darśitvena prasiddhānāṁ daṇḍakāraṇya-vāsināṁ gopālopāsakānāṁ munīnām avaśyambhāvitvāt | na caitat kalpa-vṛtta-rāmāvatāra-gatā eva te munayo bhāviny api rāmāvatāre bhavitum arhantīti vācyam | etat-kalpa-vṛtta-śrī-kṛṣṇāvatāra eva teṣāṁ prāpta-gopikā-rūpatvena siddhatvāt siddhānāṁ punaḥ sādhakatvāyogāt | na ca maivaṁ bhaviṣyanti munaya iti vācyam | bhāvini kṛṣṇāvatāre rāsārmabhe antar-gṛha-gatānāṁ kṛṣṇa-viraheṇa deha-tyāgavatīnāṁ gopīnām avaśyambhāvitvāt | tās tarhi kā bhaviṣyanti etat-kalpa-vṛtta-muni-caryā eveti cen na | tāsāṁ siddha-dehatvena punar deha-tyāgāyogāt | yogamāyā eva deha-tyāgaṁ pratyāyayatīti cen na | siddhā api dehaṁ tatyajur iti prasiddher api jugupsitatvena tathā tat-karaṇāyogāt | tasmāt sādhaka-bhaktānām anantatvāt | pratikalpa eva te munayo’nye’nya eva bhavanti | ta eva kṛṣṇāvatāre navīnāṁ municaryo gopyas tāsām eva kāścid antar-gṛha-gatā dehaṁ tyajantīti 

“In the future again other sages will become attracted to Śrī Rāma’s beauty and take birth as gopīs in a future manifest pastime of Kṛṣṇa. Why can it not be the same sages? That is not possible because these sages/gopis attained perfection [siddhi] as they left their bodies in their houses when Kṛṣṇa lured them to the Rāsa-dance with His flute playing. It would be distasteful and impossible if siddhas would again turn into sādhakas.“ This means that the sādhakas who are promoted to Kṛṣṇa’s manifest pastimes for further training still have material bodies. These bodies must be of some higher quality because Viśvanātha Cakravartī earlier said that the material body cannot tolerate rāga, anurāga etc.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 3.52-53 - 
bhaktāś ca trividhāḥ sva-vāsanānusāreṇa tal-līlā-parikarāṇāṁ śuddhānugatimanto’haṅgrahopāsanā-mayānugatimanto’nanugatimantaś ca | tatrādyāḥ kecid devāḥ śrīdāma-subalādīnāṁ priya-sakhāḥ | kāścid devyaś ca śrī-rādhādīnāṁ prāṇa-sakhyaḥ | tathā nanda-yaśodādīnām api sakhāyaḥ sakhyaś cānubhavan | dvitīyās teṣu tāsu ca prāviśan | droṇa-dharā-vasv-ādayo yathā nanda-yaśododdhavādiṣu tathā ṛṣayo’pi kecit go-vatseṣu vṛndāvanīya-pakṣiṣu ca | tṛtīyās tu tatra prādurbhāvābhāvenālabdha-manorathā eva babhūvur yathā lakṣmy-ādaya iti | tal-līlā-parikarānugatitām eva tat-prāpti-niyamanāt.

“There are three types of eternally beloveds of Kṛṣṇa in the heavenly planets – those who purely follow the līlā-parikaras (eternal associates of Kṛṣṇa)  according to their own vāsanās (spiritual aspirations), those who worship themselves as these associates (ahaṅgropāsanā) and those who do not follow Kṛṣṇa's associates. Some devatās in the first group become dear friends of Śrīdāma and Subal, while some Devis become hearts friends (prāṇa sakhīs) of gopīs like Śrī Rādhā while again others become friends or girlfriends of Nanda and Yaśodā etc. The second group enters (merges) into these associates of Kṛṣṇa, like Drona merged with Nanda, Dharā with Yaśodā and Vasu with Uddhava. Seers (ṛṣis) may also merge with the cows, calves, birds etc. of Vṛndāvana. The third group do not have their desires fulfilled (do not attain these associates) due to a lack of appearance (of the appropriate feeling and attitude), examples are Lakṣmī and others. The rule for attaining an associate of Kṛṣṇa is allegiance to him or her.”

yūthādhipātve‘py aucityaṁ dadhānā lalitādayaḥ |
sveṣṭa-rādhādi-bhāvasya lobhāt sakhya-ruciṁ dadhuḥ 

Though Lalitā, Viśākhā, Padmā and Śaibyā are capable of being leaders, because of their mood of serving other leaders like Rādhā, they have a taste as friends of leaders. Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi 3.61

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.3 śrīmaj-jīva-gosvāmi-caraṇānāṁ vyākhyānāt rukmiṇy-ādīnāṁ hlādinī-śaktitve’pi na mahā-bhāva-rūpatvaṁ vraja-devīnāṁ śrī-rādhāyā evāṁśa-bhūtānāṁ mahā-bhāvāṁśa-rūpatve’pi mahā-bhāva-sāra-bhūta-mādana-bhāgābhāvān na mahā-bhāva-svarūpatvam | yathā nada-nadī-taḍāgādīnāṁ jalāśayatve’pi na jaladhitvam

“Rukmini and others, though being of the pleasure potency hlādinī śakti, do not have mahābhāva. The women of Vraja, particles of Rādhā, are particles of mahābhāva, but they are not the svarūpa of mahābhāva since they lack the essential portion of mahābhāva called mādana. Rivers, streams and ponds, though reservoirs of water, are not like the ocean.”

A bit hard to understand the simile with the ocean – it seems the pond has the same quality but not the same quantity as the ocean, so this simile would suggest the other gopīs also have mādana mahābhāva but just in a smaller amount, but that is not the case.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.5, which quotes the famous yathā rādhā priya viṣṇos verse, praising Śrī Rādhākuṇḍa - 

tataś ca viṣṇor vyāpakasya rādhāyā ātma-buddhi-dehendriyādikam āśliṣya sthitasya sataḥ kṛṣṇasya yathā rādhā priyā viṣṇor jala-sthala-sopāna-nikuñjodyāna-kusuma-phala-vihaṅgama-kūjitādiṣu snānāvagāhanāsana-śayana-vihāra-darśanāvaghrāṇāsvādana-śravaṇādibhir vyāpya sthitasya priyam | nanu tasyānyā api gopyaḥ priyāḥ śrūyante | satyam | kintu sarva-gopīṣu viṣṇoḥ prakaṭitānanta-prakāśatvena tā api sarvā āśliṣya sthitasyāpi tasyānta-vallabhātvaṁ lakṣayatīty āyātam | yato rādhikā-yūtha evāyaṁ modano na tu sarvataḥ [u.nī.15.176] iti | tad-yūthasya sarva-yūthebhya utkarṣam uktvā – sarva-bhāvodgamollāsī mādano’yaṁ parāt paraḥ | rājate hlādinī-sāro rādhāyām eva yaḥ sadā || [u.nī.15.219]

(The word Viṣṇu mentions in the śloka conventionally means ‘all-pervading’) “Just as Rādhā is dear to Kṛṣṇa who pervades and embraces Rādhā’s soul, intelligence, body and senses - her kuṇḍa is similarly dear to Kṛṣṇa (viṣṇoḥ), who pervades the water, steps, groves, gardens, flowers, fruits, birds and their cooing by bathing, sitting, reclining, playing, seeing, smelling, tasting and hearing at that kuṇḍa. “But it is heard that other gopīs are also dear to Kṛṣṇa.” That is true, but this is included in the verse as it says they are very dear to Him too (atyanta ballabha) as He pervades (embraces) them all too in innumerable manifestations (forms). Because it is said rādhikā-yūtha evāyaṁ modano na tu sarvataḥ: modana exists only in Rādhā’s group (Ujjvala-Nīlamani.15.176), her group is also the best of all groups.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.47, which shows that Rādhā is Kṛṣṇa’s dearest sweetheart (kṛṣṇa priyāvalī mukhyā)- tvad-vapuṣaḥ pṛṣṭhādy-eka-pradeśā api dṛṣṭvā māṁ svastimantaṁ kurvanti tāsāṁ tādṛśāpāṅga-bhaṅgyo’pi neti bhāvaḥ

(Kṛṣṇa says:) “Even one part of Your body, like Your back, makes me happy, unlike the willful glances of them (the other gopis).”

Jīva Goswāmī quotes unknown śāstra in U.N. 5.11-

parakīyā dvidāḥ proktā paroḍhā kanyakā tathā yātrādi-niratāny oḍhā kulaṭā galita-trapā kanyā tv ajātopayamā salajjā nava-yauvanā

There are two kinds of parakīyās: the paroḍhā (married to another man) and the kanyakā (unmarried). The paroḍhā is engaged in worldly affairs, is unchaste and devoid of shame. The kanyā is not married, is shy and of fresh youth."

UN 5.94 - ced iyaṁ preyasā hātuṁ kṣaṇam apy atiduḥśakā |
parama-prema-vaśyatvān mādhavīti tadocyate ||

If Kṛṣṇa cannot give up his lover for even a moment because he is controlled by her prema, the svādhīna-bhartṛkā is called mādhavī.

UN 7.80- dhavam upekṣya kaṭhoram iyaṁ puraḥ parimalollasitā kila mādhavī |
śrayitum utkalikā-valitādbhutaṁ nanu bhavantam upaiti hali-priya

“This fragrant Mādhavī-vine ignored her hard husband to take shelter of a wonderful Kadamba tree.”

Saturday, October 08, 2011

Tapan Dā at Rādhākuṇḍa

It is time again for the annual niyam sevā for Kartik in Rādhākuṇḍa and the village fills up again with Bengali Vaiṣṇavas for the month of intense bhakti practises. One of them is my senior Gurubrother Tapan Kumār Adhikārī, who has moved his residence from Ranchi to Asansol recently and travelled here with Viśvānanda Avadhūt. He is staying in Gadādhar Caitanya Mandir on the bank of Śyāmakuṇḍa. He went on Girirāja parikramā alone yesterday and is visiting me now in my kutir at Lalita Kund.

I ask him why Baba worshipped Śiva as Gopeśvara instead of Gopīśvara. He tells me the story of how the gopīs worshipped Kātyāyanī Devi for a whole winter month, when they were just 6 years old and that Bābā considered Gopeśvara to be Kṛṣṇa. He will ask the answer to that question to Kumkum Da when he meets him during the upcoming festival for Bābā’s viraha. Bābā said that Madan Gopāl is spreading out His hand (as Laḍḍu Gopāl) because he begs for the loving gifts of His devotees, the gifts of prema sevā. I ask him if I do not commit aparādha by preaching Bābā’s glories – they are confidential and those who do not understand may criticise him. Bābā himself was also averse to preaching. Tapan Dā quotes Bābā saying that the elephant will walk on even if the dogs may bark around him. He also says that the śiṣya can attract people to the Guru by his strong sādhana and preaching of rāgānugā bhakti, something which Krishna Di and Niranjan Babu both told me too, independently, more than 10 years ago. The flower spreads its sweet fragrance to the connoisseurs who are ready to appreciate it.

I ask if the story of Bābā seeing the sādhus at night when he was deciding whether to marry or to stay celibate (see Satīnāth Datta’s hagiography of Sādhu Bābā on was a real story or a divine vision. Tapan Dā says, as I expected, it was a divine vision. He says about the story that Bābā was immersed in the Gangā while Jñāna Dā went shopping that it was Bābā's own wish, so He could do his sādhana in peace.

Tapan Dā tries to convince me to come with him to Navadwip, very embarrassing because I am so attached to Rādhākuṇḍa that I just want to stay here. I beg him and the didis forgiveness. Tapan Dā tells me some surprising details about himself. He is only 52 years old, 3 years younger than me even, and joined in 1983, a year after me too. He is a brahmin from Katwa (Mau Gram), whose family has been worshipping Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa vigraha for the last 300 years. His father, following kula-prathā (family tradition) took dīkṣā from Ānanda Gopāl Goswāmī, so Tapan Dā was not a newcomer to the family. He will get a pension at 60 and he will try to make a kutir at Rādhākuṇḍa at that time.

Sunday, October 02, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 1

Ujjvala Nilamani is a sequel of Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu, written by Śrī Rūpa Goswāmī because he found the topic of amorous love of Kṛṣṇa was too extensive to include in it. Naturally this is a confidential item of śāstra, yet it should be discussed, for true devotees will appreciate it in its true value. In his brief commentary Jīva Goswāmī appears to support svakīya vāda (married love of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa) and in his lengthier commentary Srī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda seems to support parakīya vāda (extramarital love). They only clash in a few places, though, not throughout the book. This scripture shows an almost endless variety of male and female lovers and the situations they may end up in.

Chapter 1 deals with the varieties of Nāyakas (amorous heroes). In his commentary of verse 1.23, Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda argues that, why Kṛṣṇa was named Govinda during His abhisekha by the Surabhi cow after He lifted Mount Govardhan? Is this name not eternal?

anyathā govindābhiṣekāt pūrvam eva pūtanā supayaḥ pānānantaraṁ bīja-nyāsaṁ kurvatyo vraja-vara-vadhvaḥ krīḍantaṁ pātu govindaḥ [ṣ.B. 10.6.25] iti guṇa-gāne ca govinda-veṇum anumatta-mayūra-nṛtyam iti kathaṁ vadeyuḥ -

Previously in the 10th canto, during the narration of the killing of Putanā, the Vrajabāsī women assigned nyāsa [seed-letters] to Kṛṣṇa,  saying ‘may Govinda protect You at play’ (though this is more likely to refer to the Vaikuṇṭha-deity Govinda) and the young gopīs praised Kṛṣṇa's flute long before the abhiṣekha-pastime, in chapter 21’s ‘Veṇu Gīta’ ‘the peacocks dance like mad, when they hear Govinda’s flute’

tena yat-karma-viśiṣṭasya yasya rūpasya yan nāma tat-karma-viśiṣṭaṁ tad-rūpaṁ nityam eva | loke paraṁ teṣāṁ bhaktānāṁ tat-tad-rasānubhavārthaṁ krameṇāvirbhāvaḥ 

“Thus the name related to a form of the Lord performing some action is as eternal as that action. They gradually manifest in the world so the devotees can experience their divine flavours.”

abhimanyu-prabhṛtiṣu pati-bhāvas tu māyika eva | cid-rūpāṇāṁ śrī-rādhādīnāṁ cid-rūpeṣu patiṣv abhimanyu-prabhṛtiṣu sārvakālika-dveṣānyathānupapattyā madhye pati-bhāva-rūpā māyā svāṁśa-bhūtā śrī-yoga-māyayaiva sthāpitā | prākṛtīnāṁ strīṇāṁ pariṇetṛṣu pati-bhāvasya prāpañcikatvād anityatvam | gopīnāṁ tu pariṇetṛṣu patibhāvasya māyā-kalpitatve bhagaval-līlā-tantra-madhya-vartitvāt māyāyāś cāsyā yogamāyānumoditatvāc ca nityatvam eveti viśeṣaḥ | mohanaṁ tu tāsāṁ yogamāyyaiva guṇātīttvān na tu māyayā

“Abhimanyu and other cowherd men’s esteem of being the gopīs’ husbands is false [māyik]. The forms of Śrī Rādhā and other gopīs are transcendental; it would be inappropriate for Abhimanyu and others like him to cherish eternal hatred towards them. Mahāmāyā is an expansion of Yogamāyā and she arranges their husband-esteem. To think of oneself as the husband of a material woman is mundane and temporary. The gopīs’ idea that these men are their husbands is also created by māyā, but since it all takes place in the context of the Lord’s transcendental pastimes it is endorsed by Yogamāyā and thus also eternal.”

Chapter 2 deals with the variety of assistants of the hero. In his commentary on verse 2.15, Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda mentions mañjarī bhāva - 

tāś ca lalitādyāḥ parama-preṣṭha-sakhy-ādaya uttarās tu tad-dvayābhāvāt kadāpi kṛṣṇāṅga-saṅga-spṛhāvatyo na bhavanti | tāś ca kastūryādayo nitya-sakhyas tatra vyākyāta-lakṣaṇaṁ pūrvāsāṁ śrī-kṛṣṇāṅga-saṅga-spṛhā-rūpam aṁśam udāhartum āha yathā veti 

‘There are parama preṣṭha sakhīs like Lalitā and others, and there are nitya sakhīs, like Kasturī Mañjarī, who never ever desire the bodily association of Kṛṣṇa.

Chapter 3 deals with the variety of Hari’s sweethearts.
Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.2 - 

kāminīnāṁ yauvana-mada eva lalitānīti nyāyenoktir vastutas tu tāsāṁ nitya-siddhaiva sarva-vaidagdhī svāvasaraṁ prāpya udayate | dṛṣṭaṁ ca tathā rāsa-krīḍāyāṁ gāna-nṛtyādiṣu prāvīṇyam tat-tac-chāstra-kṛdbhirapi durgamam

“Pride of youth causes the attainment of all cleverness in nitya siddha girls. They learn expertise in the arts of dancing, singing, etc. during the Rāsa-pastimes, that are rarely attained even by the authors of śāstra, just by looking.” So no long studies at Bhārat Nātyam colleges or lengthy mṛdaṅga-lessons in mañjarī svarūpa. Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda writes elsewhere that to attain perfection a devotee needs to take birth first in Kṛṣṇa's earthly pastimes before being promoted to Goloka, but that is not to gain practical skills. Only to develop further prema.

Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.13

tatrāpi paroḍhānāṁ śrī-rādhādīnāṁ dāsyaḥ kāścana śrī-vṛṣabhānv-ādibhir vivāha-kāle dattāḥ kanyakā eva kāścana tad-anyā rūpa-mañjary-ādayaḥ paroḍhā eva jñeyāḥ | bimbādhare kṣatam anāgata bhartṛkāyāḥ [vilāpa-kusumāñjali 1] iti śrī-dāsa-gosvāmy-ukteḥ | arvācīnānāṁ sādhaka-bhaktānāṁ tu bhāvo yathā-ruci yathā-sampradāyaṁ vā phaliṣyatīti boddhavyam

“Some of the maidservants that were given at marriage by the fathers of the brides like Vṛṣabhānu, were not married and some, like Rūpa Mañjarī, were. The evidence for Rūpa Mañjarī being married is found in the opening verse of Śrīla Raghunāth Dās Goswāmī’s Vilāpa Kusumāñjali. The feelings of the contemporary sādhakas will bear fruit according to feeling and sampradāya.” yathā sampradāya cannot mean ‘according to sampradāya like Rāmānuja, Madhva etc.’, because only the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sampradāya has mañjarī-bhāva. Therefore it should mean according to Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sub-branch like Advaita- and Nityānanda parivāras. Ironically Sādhu Bābā quoted exactly the same verse to me to prove that Rūpa Mañjarī is not married, as anāgata means ‘not come’; in other words Rūpa Mañjarī’s husband was not yet found. Anyway, Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda reconciles it neatly afterwards by saying yathā ruci yathā sampradāya, it is accomplished according to one’s own taste and lineage.

3.19 kanyakāś ca paroḍhāś ca parakīyā dvidhā matāḥ

Verse by Rūpa Goswāmī – “there are two kinds of parakīya relationships – not only of a married girl with another man but also of an unmarried [maiden] with a man.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.19: 
kāścit tadānīṁ deśāntarāt samāgatyāpi samātṛkāḥ sthitā iti jñeyāḥ : 

“Some unmarried gopīs came from outside of Vraja, with their mothers.”

3.21 yatra niṣedha-viśeṣaḥ sudurlabhatvaṁ ca yan mṛgākṣīṇām tatraiva nāgarāṇāṁ nirbharam āsajjate hṛdayam

“When a woman forbids a man to approach her and is hard to attain, it increases the attachment of the heart for the amorous hero (suitor).”

Rūpa Goswāmī condemns sahajīya imitationists in UN 3.24: 
vartitavyaṁ śam icchadbhir bhaktavan na tu kṛṣṇavat -

“Those who desire their own welfare should act as devotees, not as Kṛṣṇa.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.33:

gopīnāṁ gopair vivāhasya māyikatve’pi nitya-satyatvam eva jñeyam | manyamānā ity abhiprāya-mātraṁ na tu māyā-kalpitānām api tāsāṁ patibhiḥ sambhoga iti tāsāṁ tad-ākāra-tulyākārāṇām anya-sambhuktatvasyānaucityāt | ata eva sva-pārśva-sthān iti | na tu talpa-sthān ity uktam | tac ca samādhānaṁ yogamāyayaiva tat-patīnāṁ puṁstve’pi kāma-vikārān udbhāvanāt | ata eva tan-mātrādibhiḥ prārthitānām api teṣāṁ teṣāṁ gopānāṁ gopālānāṁ śālli-kṣetrādāv eva śiśayiṣā prāyo na tu sva-gṛheṣv api svīya-tad-bhāvasya prākaṭyābhāvāyeti jñeyam –

“Though the gopīs’ marriages with the gopas are false they are also eternally real. The cowherds did not enjoy those forms made of māyā as it would be inappropriate to enjoy other forms that looked just like them. Hence it is said (in this Bhāgavat-verse 10.33.38 quoted here) ‘they thought their wives to be by their sides’, not ‘they thought their wives to be in their beds. The solution was provided by Yogamāyā: though the husbands were potent they had no male transformations in the presence of their gopī-wives. Though their mothers asked them (to sleep with their wives) they slept in the cow-barns, because they did not have that bhāva (desire) for their wives.”

3.37 aprasūtitve sati tāsām ālambanatvaṁ vairūpyeṇa dūṣyate

“The gopīs could not have delivered babies because the disfigurement would have polluted them (made them unqualified for enjoyment by Kṛṣṇa).”

ata eva duhantyo’bhiyayuḥ ityādau, pāyayantyaḥ śiśūn payaḥ ity eva śrī-śuka-vākyaṁ na tu pāyayantyaḥ sutān stanam iti | kvacit tad-vidheṣu putrādi-vyapadeśo dṛśyate yathā sāmba-kṛta-lakṣmaṇā-haraṇe śrī-baladevam uddiśya |
pratigṛhya tu tat-sarvaṁ bhagavān sātvatarṣabhaḥ |
sa-sutaḥ sa-snuṣaḥ prāgāt suhṛdbhir abhinanditaḥ || iti ||37||

"Sometimes it is mentioned that the gopīs' abandoned their children to dance with Kṛṣṇa,  but wherever there is any mentioning of them having sons it does not mean their own sons, just as when Lord Baladev rescued Sāmba (Śrīmad Bhāgavat 10.68.52), Sāmba is mentioned as his son though he was not directly his son. Also the Bhāgavat mentions the gopis fed milk to children, but not their breast milk. It is said śiśūn payaḥ, they fed milk to children (cows’ milk), not ‘they breast-fed their own children’ (pāyayantyaḥ sutān stanam)."