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Friday, December 23, 2011

Śrīmad Bhāgavat, Canto 11, part 1


This is the last canto of the Bhāgavat I studied with the commentaries of Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda, that are very summary in this Canto.

11.2.37 bhayaṁ dvitīyābhiniveśataḥ syād īśād apetasya viparyayo'smṛtiḥ, is often quoted to show the jīva fell from the spiritual world, but the apeta, or turning away from God by the jīva is anādi, beginningless, and that also counts for fear, bhaya. asmṛti means, according to Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda, not forgetting Kṛṣṇa, but the own spiritual nature. viparyaya means taking something for what it isn't, like identifying oneself with the body, which one is not.

11.3.22 the word śikṣet is in imperative case - one must learn and teach bhagavat dharma. A Guru should not just give dīkṣā and then walk away, nor should the śiṣya just take dīkṣā and then walk away.

11.3.48 labdhvānugraha ācāryāt tena sandarśitāgamaḥ mahā-puruṣam abhyarcen mūrtyābhimatayātmanaḥ “Having obtained the mercy of his Guru, who reveals to the disciple the injunctions of Vedic scriptures, the devotee should worship the Supreme Lord in the particular personal form of the Lord the devotee finds most attractive.”
This clearly refutes the theory that one must just do any service the Lord orders one.

11.5.41 –  Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - That (debt to the ancestors or devatās) is not so for the devotee who has surrendered completely to Mukunda. It is just like a person who, on being accepted as the servant of the emperor of the earth, cannot be the servant of the ruler of one state.

11.7.20 ātmano gurur ātmaiva puruṣasya viśeṣataḥ yat pratyakṣānumānābhyāṁ śreyo`sāv anuvindate “An intelligent person, acting as his own Guru, can achieve great benefit by perception and logic.”
Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - One can attain benefit by sense perception to some degree and by reflection or inference to some degree.

11.7.39, Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - The mind and speech will be agitated by food which is too oily, because of increase in laziness and semen.

11.8.20,  Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - The moth is destroyed by attraction to form. The bee is destroyed by attraction to smell. The elephant is destroyed by attraction to touch. The deer is destroyed by attraction to sound. The fish is destroyed by attraction to taste. It has been said:
kuraṅga-mātaṅga-pataṅga-bhṛṅga-mīnā hatāḥ pañcabhir eva pañca
ekaḥ pramādī sa kathaṁ na hanyate yaḥ sevate pañcabhir eva pañca
The deer, elephant, moth, bee and fish are destroyed by the five sense objects. How can an insane person who engages all senses in the five sense objects not be destroyed? Garuda Purāṇa 1.115.21

11.9.31 na hy ekasmād guror jñānaṁ su-sthiraṁ syāt su-puṣkalam brahmaitad advitīyaṁ vai gīyate bahudharṣibhiḥ - "Although the Lord is one without a second, the sages have described him in many different ways. Therefore one may not be able to acquire firm and complete knowledge from one guru."
Gaudiya Vaiṣṇavas are eka-guru vādīs though - Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - “It is said mad abhijñaṁ guruṁ śāntam upāsīta: one should worship a peaceful Guru who knows me (SB 11.10.5) and tasmād guruṁ prapadyeta jijñāsuḥ śreya uttamam: the inquisitive person should surrener to the superior Guru. (SB 11.3.21) From these statements it is understood that one should accept only one Guru. Śvetaketu, Bhṛgu and others did not accept many Gurus. And true, I also have accepted one Guru who gives instruction on mantra. But considering things which act as examples of what is favorable or unfavorable for performing worship, I have made those things my Gurus. They are my śikṣā-gurus, teaching by negative or positive example. »

11.10.7 Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - The son of Citraketu said:

yathā vastūni paṇyāni hemādīni tatas tataḥ
paryaṭanti nareṣv evaṁ jīvo yoniṣu kartṛṣu
nityasyārthasya sambandho hy anityo dṛśyate nṛṣu
yāvad yasya hi sambandho mamatvaṁ tāvad eva hi

"Just as commodities and coins pass among many people, the jīva wanders into various wombs with various fathers and mothers. It is seen that the relationships of one object with many people are temporary. As long as the relationship lasts, one has possessiveness of the object." SB 6.16.6-7
But one should not lack possessiveness of Guru and the Lord. Thus it is said one should have firm attachment to them (dṛḍah-sauhṛdaḥ).

11.11.4 ekasyaiva mamāṁśasya jīvasyaiva mahā-mate bandho`syāvidyayānādir vidyayā ca tathetaraḥ – “O intelligent Uddhava! The bondage of the jīva, who is my one part or taṭastha-śakti, by avidyā, is without beginning. By vidyā, he achieves liberation which has a beginning.”
This is clear and unmistakable. Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - asya jīvasya avidyayā bandhaḥ sa ca karmaṇo`nādiḥ The jīva is bound by avidyā. avidyā is beginningless because karma is beginningless.

Though Guru Purnima is sometimes called a karmī-or māyāvādī-festival, in his ṭīkā of 11.11.24,  Viśvanātha writes mat-svarūpa-śrī guru-devārādhana-divase ca, (Kṛṣṇa says: ) «My worship means worshipping My swarup Śrī Gurudeva, on the day of his worship. »
It can also refer to Gurudev’s birthday.

11.12.8 Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā -  “The cows attained me by vātsalya-rasa. The mountains like Govardhana attained me with sakhya-rasa. The animals, the trees and shrubs, though unintelligent, snakes like Kaliya attained me with dāsya-rasa."

Sometimes it is said that the cows, mountains and trees are in śānta rasa, but this makes it clear there is no śānta rasa in Vraja at all. cāri bhāva diye nācāimu tribhuvana – Mahāprabhu declares that he bestows four bhāvas [excluding śānta rasa].

Saturday, December 03, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 5


The final part of my reading of Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi by Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmīpāda -

14.38 svarūpaṁ lalanā-niṣṭhaṁ svayam udbuddhatāṁ vrajet
dṛṣṭe’py aśrute’py uccaiḥ kṛṣṇe kuryād drutaṁ ratim

Focus on the svarūpa of a gopī will automatically and swiftly produce rati for Kṛṣṇa, though He has not been seen or heard before.

Śrī Jīva Goswāmī comments : svarūpaṁ lalanā-niṣṭham iti | ikṣunālīnām iva janmata eva madhura-rasa-yogyatā | kṛṣṇa iti | tādṛśīnāṁ prācīna-saṁskāreṇa tad-eka-samavāyatvāt.Like sugarcane and its sweetness, this qualification for madhura-rasa is present from birth. This is produced by concentration of previous impressions of such devotees.”
14.52 – The desire for rati and the desire for enjoyment merge. Even in samartha rati there is no complete selflessness. See this blog.
14.55 Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - tathā hy asyā rateḥ svarūpa-siddhatvād guṇādi-śravaṇānapekṣitatvena prābalyād vayaḥ-sandheḥ pūrvam eva vraja-bālāsu kāsucit tathāparāsu nanda-pura-nikaṭa-vartinīṣu rateḥ svarūpa-siddhatve`pi śrī-kṛṣṇena saha dhūli-khelanādibhiḥ paricayādhikyenāpi prādurbhāvaḥ. sāmānyākāreṇa prādurbhūtāyāṁ ca tasyāṁ tāsāṁ śrī-kṛṣṇa evaṁ prīti-matīnāṁ sarvendriya-vṛttayaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-sukha-tātparyavatya evābhuvan.  athāyāte vayaḥ-sandhau kandarpodgamena yā sambhoga-tṛṣṇā raty-ākrānte manasy ajaniṣṭa sāpi tat-sukha-tātparyavaty evābhūd iti sambhoga-tṛṣṇāyā ratyā saha tādātmyam. tām avasthām ārabhyaiva tāsāṁ svāṅga-saṅga-ditsayaiva tat-sukha-viśeṣotpādane saṅkalpavatīnāṁ ratir madhurābhidhānābhūt. ity ata eva sambhoga-tṛṣṇā pṛthaktayā na bhāsate

samartha rati or selfless gopī-bhāva is eternal, so even before puberty the gopīs were in love with Kṛṣṇa, even without hearing about His attributes. When they played in the dust near Nanda Mahārāja’s abode, as little girls, they had samartha rati already, because it is svarūpa siddha. When they attained adolescence and lust entered into their bodies, it [lust] merged with their rati [selfless love for Kṛṣṇa]. Then they vowed to offer their bodies to Him to give Him happiness. The desire for personal enjoyment does not manifest separately.”

This, and verse 52, confirms Sādhu Bābā’s teaching which confused me for so long that the gopis also have a little desire.

14.82 aṅga-saṅge viloke ca śravaṇādau ca sa kramāt. kaniṣṭho madhyamaḥ śreṣṭhas trividho’yaṁ mano-dravaḥ
The heart melts in three grades: low through direct meeting, medium through seeing and high, through hearing.
Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - Contacting Kṛṣṇa’s limbs is matched with the lowest grade of melting the heart.
14.88  Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - ghṛta-sneha has more respect than madhu-sneha. There some amount of respect in madhu-sneha also. Rādhā has slightly more respect for Kṛṣṇa than her sakhīs or the priya-sakhīs or Subala.
14.94 Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - Candrāvalī is not respectful towards Kṛṣṇa because He is God but because He is a prominent person in Vraja.
14.106  Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - women's left limbs are stronger than their right limbs.
14.108  Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - "Viśrambha means confidentiality, without reverence. This is caused by uniting one’s life airs, mind, intelligence, body and clothing with those of the beloved."
14.127 Viśvanātha's commentary on the famous verse which describes how Rādhikā does not feel the heat of the rocks of Govardhana on which She stands, due to Her rāga - [One may argue:] “During one's sleep one does not experience the pain of mosquitoes biting, but in the morning on waking up, one sees blood oozing from the bites. Similarly, Rādhikā does not feel pain in her tender feet now, but later she will.” That is not so. By seeing Kṛṣṇa she is submerged in bliss. From Her toe-nails to Her crown, Her body becomes cooler than millions of moons. She became very cool, not that she should be heated up. The moon can never be heated by the sun's rays. Since a piece of cotton cannot be defeated by a sharp rock, her feet which are very tender, more so than cotton, cannot be defeated by the rocks. Or yoga-māyā, solver of all problems, remains always awake in the pastimes.
14.137 - rāga which never vanishes, does not depend on other elements, and increases its beauty constantly is called mañjiṣṭhā-raga, which is seen in Rādhā and Mādhava.
Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - "Manjistha dye cannot be removed by water (ahāryaḥ). In terms of prema, māñjistha-rāga cannot be agitated by sañcārī-bhāvas. It is svataḥ-siddha, independent. It is not like śyāmā-rāga, dependent on herbs (or timidity). It increases its beauty. kusumbha-rāga has limited beauty. It increases its own beauty. It does not change by mixing with anurāga."
Example - The incomparable festival arising from the prema of Rādhā and Mādhava appears quickly without cause, is not at all moved by any means, produces great taste if met by heaps of opposing elements, and increases with the greatest, unlimited, astonishing bliss.
14.157 varāmṛta svarūpa-śrī svaṁ svarūpaṁ mano nayet
Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - "The mind's condition is nondifferent from mahā-bhāva and since the senses are functions of the mind, the gopīs' senses become the form of mahā-bhāva, which totally controls Kṛṣṇa. But the queens of Dvārakā desire enjoyment, so their minds do not even assume the form of prema, what to speak of mahā-bhāva?"
Viśvanātha's explanations of divyonmāda at the end of chapter 14, based on the Bhramara Gīta [SB 10.47,12-21] is very similar to the one in his Sārārtha Darśinī ṭīkā.
VCT 14,225- "In the sthāyi bhāva of mādana one experiences separation even during union, when one kisses, embraces etc. Thus two manifestations take place in one. Even during union there is longing for more in thousands of ways, due to visions of separation."
14.232 (śloka): sādhāraṇī rati's limit is prema, samañjasa's limit is anurāga and samartha rati's limit is mahā-bhāva.
15.31 Rādhikā’s bracelets fall off Her wrists as She gets thin out of separation from Kṛṣṇa and if it proceeds even her rings fall off her fingers because the fingers got too thin.
15.65-66 there are two types of kāma-lekhā [love letter]: nirakṣara, without syllables, made with crescent nailmarks, and sākṣara, with [prakṛta] syllables.
15.69 The written letters are bound by lotus fibers and with minerals or musk as ink on broad flower petals and stamped with kunkuma.
15.187 Jīva Gosvāmī tries to justify svakīya bhāva by arguing that only ultimate union can give peace and satisfaction. Later in the 15th chapter, however, it will be shown that the longer the separation, the more the enjoyment, be it in sampanna or samṛddhimān sambhoga, and it is eternally so.
Viśvanātha argues that prakaṭa līlā is eternal and if the cosmos is aprakaṭa within Mahaviṣṇu, Yogamāyā creates duplicate universes in which Kṛṣṇa's manifest pastimes continue. He also says that in the unmanifest pastimes Kṛṣṇa always stays in Mathurā etc. because He must be eternally present for His pastimes there. The Padma Purana [6.255-257] says vedāṅga sveda janita toyaiḥ prasrāvitā - the causal ocean flowed from the sweat-drops of the Vedas. Of course this is not literally true, as Bhagavad Gītā says viddhy anādi ubhāv api - the material world is beginningless. Similarly, it seems as if Kṛṣṇa is born, but He is also anādi. The Gaṅgā seems to be invoked by Bhagiratha, but already existed long before, in Pṛthu's time [SB 4.21.11]. The words devaki janma vādo in SB 10.90.48 prove that Kṛṣṇa's birth pastime is also eternal, as vāda means 'conclusively' as in Bhagavad Gītā 10.32. Kṛṣṇa crawling as a toddler is eternal even in His manifest pastimes, because as He grows up and stops crawling, He continues to do it in the next universe where He performs the same course of pastimes later on. This also counts for seasonal [Holi] and daily pastimes.
15.195 sankīrṇa sambhoga is mixed with the remembrance of unpleasant past actions of one's partner [and therefore is not uttama samboga]
15.207  Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda ṭīkā - The gopīs becoming queens as is described in Lalita Mādhava is not a concocted story, it is confirmed in Padma Purāṇa, Kartik Māhātmya chapter 32 - kaiśore gopakanyāś ca yauvane rāja-kanyakā - "The adolescent cowherd daughters were princesses in their youth."
That the Bhāgavat shows them as different persons is because that took place in a different kalpa.
15.253-256 līlā vilāsa is coquettish resistance of the heroine to attempts at intercourse by the hero. Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī says that this is giving greater happiness than the intercourse itself.

Monday, November 14, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 4


This is the fourth blog on my readings of Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmīpāda's Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi and its commentaries -

Chapter 10 deals with uddīpana, or incitements of ecstatic love.

Un 10.28 Viśvanātha Cakravartī's ṭīkā -
chāyāyāḥ kāntes taralatvaṁ taraṅgāyamānatvam - Lābanya is like a wave of luster.

atha abhirūpatā —
yad ātmīya-guṇotkarṣair vastv anyan nikaṭa-sthitam |
sārūpyaṁ nayati prājñair ābhirūpyaṁ tad ucyate ||33||

Abhirūpatā: "When, due to its excellent qualities, an object makes a nearby object assume similar qualities, the wise call it abhirūpatā."

vakṣoje tava campaka-cchavim avaṣṭambhoru-kumbhopame
rādhe kokanada-śriyaḥ karatale sindūrataḥ sundare 
drāg indindira-bandhureṣu cikureṣv indīvarābhāṁ vahann
ekaḥ kairava-korako vitanute puṣpa-trayī-vibhramam ||35||

FOR INSTANCE-
"O Rādhe! When it rests on your golden breasts shaped like large pots, this white lotus bud appears like a golden campaka flower. When you hold it in your beautiful palm it appears like a red lotus because of the hand’s redness, and when it is placed in your locks of hair, black like a bee, it at once appears like a blue lotus. In this way this white lotus bud assumes the beauty of three different flowers."

UN 10.40 Both Jīva Gosvāmī and Viśvanātha Cakravartī mention China, showing that the ācāryas were aware of the outside world.

UN 10.41   Viśvanātha Cakravartī's ṭīkā - Discoloring due to separation does not make the gopīs ugly, on the contrary – suffering separation in the spiritual world is the greatest happiness and such happiness enhances the gopīs’ luster.

UN 10.59 Some argue that the gopīs did not cover their heads with their veils, but in his tika Viśvanātha Cakravartī writes keśeṣu vastrācchāditeṣv. Kṛṣṇa says: ‘Her hairs are covered by Her garment’.

UN 11.7  Viśvanātha Cakravartī's ṭīkā - prākṛta-vastunāpy aprākṛta-padārthasyopamā nāsamañjasā. meghādineva śrī-kṛṣṇasya aprākṛta-vastūnāṁ loke sākṣād anupalabdher iti
It is not improper to use a material example for a spiritual subject, since people cannot grasp spiritual objects directly. Thus Kṛṣṇa is compared to a cloud and other material objects.
tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ, tejo-vāri-mṛdāṁ yathā vinimayaḥ [bhā.pu. 1.1.1] iti | ya ādyasya rasyasya kavayaḥ kāvya-kṛto muhyanti | bhrameṇālakṣye`pi prākṛta-rasa-lakṣaṇasya saṅgamanāt | tatra dṛṣṭāntas tejo-vārīti
Viśvanātha Cakravartī compares the mistaking of spiritual eros for material eros with the phrase in the first verse of the Bhāgavat, tejo vāri mṛdam – mistaking fire or earth for water.

UN 13.96  Viśvanātha Cakravartī's ṭīkā - kiṁ cātra kusuma-padena śleṣeṇānyo bībhatsito`rtho na vyañjitavyaḥ sarvāsām eva vraja-bālānāṁ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nitya-saṅgārthaṁ yogamāyayaiva strī-dharma-rūpasya rajasaḥ sarvathaivānutpāditatvāt | prakṛte`rthe ca rajasvalā kiṁ punaḥ sambhogānukūlā bhavatīti tan-niṣedho`pi nopapadyate svid iti ca vicāryam „The other meaning of the word kusuma, menstruation, can not be used because it is disgusting. So that they can be eternally [always] enjoyed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Yogamāyā has arranged for them never to menstruate, though this is natural for fertile women. Thus, though it is forbidden in the material world to have intercourse during menstruation, this needs not even be considered in relation to the gopīs.”
It makes sense because fertile girls are contaminated about 1/7 part of the time, so if 100 gopis would go out to meet Krishna every day, about 14 of them would be unsuitable for His enjoyment. The babies of the gopīs mentioned in the Bhāgavat are said by our ācāryas to be babies of their sisters and nieces, not their own. Other than that there is no mentioning of the gopīs ever having children, whereas in Vedic culture it is natural that the young bride has a child within a year of marriage.

UN 14.31 nirhetutvam eveti siddhānte vyañjite lokokti-rītyaivaite hetava uktā iti Though rati has no cause it is said to have a cause for popular understanding, in popular parlance. In other words, causeless matters are explained in causal terms, to make it understandable for the common man. Just as God has never created anything or anyone because both matter and spirit are beginningless (prakṛtaṁ puruṣam caiva viddhy anādi ubhāv api, Gītā 13.19), he is still often called the creator (as in aham sarvasya prabhavo in Gītā 10.8, or agre nārāyaṇam āsīt).

UN 14.32, Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī ṭīkā - tathā ca sati bahubhir janmabhiḥ sucira-siddhatvāt. sudṛḍho yo madhuravatyā ābhāsaḥ punaḥ punar ādhikyenodayas tasya janmāntara-bāhulyādinā tirodhāne`pi taj-janyas tadīyo yaḥ saṁskāraḥ sūkṣmatayā sthitaḥ sa nisarga ity arthaḥ Madhura rati reaches perfection only after many births. Firm practise of madhura rati appears repeatedly with increased intensity. It may disappear for many births but it maintains a subtle saṁskāra (impression). This is called nisarga.”
This statement confirms that bhakti with the quest of prema is not a question of going back to Godhead in this lifetime, for rati or bhāva is just not attainable in a single birth. Śrī Rupa Goswami teaches the same thing in his Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu.
Jīva Goswāmī continues -
yathā suṣuptau śubhāśubha-tat-karmaṇa iti bhāvaḥ. tataś ca tasya saṁskāra-rūpeṇa sthitasya madhura-ratyākhyasya bhāvasyodbodhe vardhamānāvasthatve śrī-kṛṣṇa-guṇa-rūpa-śrutir yad-dhetuḥ syāt tan manāg eva syād anāvaśyakatayaiva syād ity evārthaḥ. bahir-hetv-anapekṣīti sāmānya-lakṣaṇasyāvyāpter iti bhāvaḥ „It is like the impressions of good and bad karma in deep sleep. The awakening and increase of madhura rati, which was situated in the form of saṁskāras [impressions], makes the hearing about Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s form and attributes unnecessary as its cause. It does not depend on external causes.”
Viśvanātha Cakravartī's ṭīkā - nanu bahir-hetavaḥ para-sambandhagā upamā tadīya-janādayaḥ. antar-hetavaś cānuṣaṅgika-tac-chravaṇādayaḥ. ta eva nirhetv-anapekṣīty ukte antar-hetum apekṣata iti labhyate | satyam asya nisarga-rūpe`ntar-hetv-ābhāsasyāpekṣā kvacit syād eva ity ata āha—tad udbodhasyeti | tadīyodbodhasya hetur api tasyāpi hetur ity arthaḥ | sudṛḍhābhyāsa-janya iti | sudṛḍhābhyāso`pi nitya-siddha eva jñeyaḥ | taj-janya-saṁskāro`pi pravāha-paramparayaiva | tathā sa ca līlā-śakti-dvāraiva śrī-kṛṣṇa-rūpa-guṇa-śravaṇam upasthāpayatīti | nāma-mātreṇaiva hetor hetutety arthaḥ | ata eva manāg iti pada-prayogaḥ
“External causes of rati are qualities (sambandha), similar items (upamā) or dear objects of the Lord (tadīya). Internal causes are hearing about the Lord and other processes. Though rati is said to be causeless and independent, it depends on these internal causes. That is true. In the portion called nisarga there is some dependence on a semblance of internal cause. Thus the verse says “the cause of its arousal, the cause of nisarga, is hearing about the Lord. The impression is created by firm practice, but it is actually nitya-siddha.” In Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu (1.2.2) bhāva is said to be nitya siddha.
Viśvanātha continues: “The impressions created by this practice are actually a continuous stream (not created)."
Probably "continuous stream" refers to Jīva's statement on the verse: “That very firm practice of madhura-rati which appears repeatedly with increased strength, and which, though disappearing for many lifetimes, remains as a subtle impression to produce rati later on, is called nisarga.” The impression is actually continuous, though it may appear to disappear at times.
Viśvanātha continues: The impressions bring about hearing of Kṛṣṇa’s form and qualities by means of the līlā-śakti. Thus it is caused in name only. Therefore the word manāg (slight) is added.”
The līlā-śakti is the REAL cause of hearing about the Lord (and even of the impressions), though the impressions are the apparent or visible cause. We could equate  līlā-śakti with mercy in general, but by specifying  līlā-śakti he probably indicates that the Lord (or his pastimes) is eager for us to enter his pastimes.  līlā-śakti causes inclination to hear , as in Bhagavad Gita chapter 6 - pūrvābhyāsena pūrva-dehinam "One is automatically attracted to yoga."
(The commentaries on this verse’s tika are by HH Bhanu Swami)

September 4, 2011 reply from Dr. Satyanārāyan Dās to a query on 14.32-
AD - Prabhuji Radhe Radhe
I have a question about Viśvanāth's ṭīkā of Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi 14.32, dealing with nisarga type of rati. He writes -
nanu bahir-hetavaḥ para-sambandhagā upamā tadīya-janādayaḥ. antar-hetavaś cānuṣaṅgika-tac-chravaṇādayaḥ | ta eva nirhetv-anapekṣīty ukte antar-hetum apekṣata iti labhyate | satyam asya nisarga-rūpe`ntar-hetv-ābhāsasyāpekṣā kvacit syād eva ity ata āha—tad udbodhasyeti | tadīyodbodhasya hetur api tasyāpi hetur ity arthaḥ | sudṛḍhābhyāsa-janya iti | sudṛḍhābhyāso`pi nitya-siddha eva jñeyaḥ | taj-janya-saṁskāro`pi pravāha-paramparayaiva | tathā sa ca līlā-śakti-dvāraiva śrī-kṛṣṇa-rūpa-guṇa-śravaṇam upasthāpayatīti | nāma-mātreṇaiva hetor hetutety arthaḥ | ata eva manāg iti pada-prayogaḥ
“External causes of rati are qualities (sambandha), similar items (upamā) or dear objects of the Lord (tadīya). Internal causes are hearing about the Lord and other processes. Though rati is said to be causeless and independent, it depends on these internal causes. That is true. In the portion called nisarga there is some dependence on a semblance of internal cause. Thus the verse says “the cause of its arousal, the cause of nisarga, is hearing about the Lord. The impression is created by firm practice, but it is actually nitya-siddha. The impressions created by this practice are actually a continuous stream (not created). The impressions bring about hearing of Kṛṣṇa’s form and qualities by means of the līlā-śakti. Thus it is caused in name only. Therefore the word manāg (slight) is added.”
My questions are about the highlighted parts - it is created by firm practise but is actually nitya siddha - does this refer to the BRS 1.2.2 verse and the nitya siddha kṛṣṇa prema-verse, or does it mean something else?

SND - Yes it refers to nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-prema .... verse

AD - What does he mean with the pravāha paramparā [continuous stream]?

SND - He means that it is nitya like the pravāha of a river, not an outcome of one's practice. In other words there is no cause and effect relation in the ordinary sense.

AD - And how is the  līlā-śakti bringing about the hearing of Kṛṣṇa's attributes?

SND - ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grahyam indriyaiḥ.... You know this verse. It happens by lila-sakti.

AD - What does līlā-śakti mean here?

SND - The antaranga-śakti which manifests Lord's names, attributes, pastimes.

AD - And how is it thus caused in name only?

SND - Well it appears as if it has been caused by the efforts of the devotee but it is nitya-siddha. That is what i said above - there appears to be a cause and effect relation, as in ordinary actions and their results. I make an effort to speak and the sound is produced. The sound is an effect of my effort. In case of chanting the name it appears that i produced the name (in sound) by the movement of my tongue. But in reality it is not so. the name is nitya-siddha, ever-existent. It is not a product of movement of tongue. It becomes manifest when tongue is moved to pronounce it and gives the illusion that the tongue made the sound. sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam eva sphuratyadaḥ.
Jai radhe

Monday, October 31, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 3


7.92 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - vastutas tu yadi sundara-prakṛtir api patir adāsyat tad api rucir nābhaviṣyat | mac-cetasaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaika-grāhitvād ity ābhyantaro vicāraḥ -
If the gopīs would cheat their husbands with Kṛṣṇa because they are ugly or nasty it would not be a compliment for Kṛṣṇa, so Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda says here: “Actually, even if my husband were beautiful in form or nature still I would have no taste for him. My heart is exclusively captured by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This is her inner consideration.”

8.66  Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - ahaṁ patra-hārī śrī-rādhāyā dūty asmi kim iti mayi lāmpaṭyaṁ tanoṣi | dūtyaḥ prāṇān varam arpayanti, na tu tanum iti dūtī-svabhāvaṁ jānāsy eveti sambhrāntāṁ rasāla-mañjarīṁ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ prāha—dūtī-paddhatim iti – This may have inspired Ānanda Gopāl Goswāmī in a similar purport on Vilāpa Kusumāñjali. 'Rasāla mañjarī told Kṛṣṇa - "I am a letter carrying messenger girl of Rādhā's - why are you fooling around with me? Dūtis can give their lives but not their bodies."

8.67 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - gṛhīta-vastraṁ śrī-kṛṣṇaṁ prati rati-mañjarī prāha—prasīdeti | he nirdaya, ahaṁ sampraty asustha-śarīrāsmīti bhāvaḥ - One should not make love while sick. Another instance of mañjarī bhāva being tad tad bhāvecchātmikā: "When Kṛṣṇa grabs Rati Mañjarī's cloth, she says: " Be merciful to me, O cruel one. Today I am feeling sick."

8.84 sakhyo`pi dvividhāḥ—śrī-kṛṣṇasyātilobhanīya-gātrā nātilobhanīya-gātrāś ca. tatra prathamāsu prathama evāgrahaḥ, dvitīyāsu dvitīya eva. sukumāryānayā svakāntāya kāma-samudāya-sampūrṇa-rati-dānāsamarthayā tad-arthaṁ vayam api niyujyāmahe tad asyāḥ sāhāyyaṁ kurma iti nāyikātve prathamā īṣad-āgrahavatyo bhavanti. dvitīyās tu sveṣu śrī-kṛṣṇa-lobhasyālpatāṁ jānatyaḥ svais tādṛśa-sāhāyyān atisambhavaṁ manyamānās tāṁ tat-sakhīś ca saubhāgyādhikāḥ sva-prayatnaiḥ śrī-kṛṣṇena sambhujyaiva tāṁ sukhayitum icchantyo nāyikātvena āgrahavatyo na bhavantīty - There are two kinds of sakhīs – those with bodies very desirable to Kṛṣṇa and others with bodies not so desirable for Kṛṣṇa. The first group is eager to please Kṛṣṇa directly, the others want to please Him indirectly [by serving other sakhīs]. ‘By this small girl it is impossible to fully satisfy all the lover’s desires, hence let us assist the heroine here."
They understand they are less desirable by Kṛṣṇa than the others, who are more fortunate. They do not desire to be nāyikās themselves.”
This does sound like mañjarī-bhāva, but it is neither confirmed or denied by Viśvanātha. I doubt it myself, because the same Viśvanātha writes in Kṛṣṇa Bhāvanāmṛta: (3.2-3): 

tā vidyud udyuti jayi prapadaika rekhā vaidagdhya eva kila mūrtibhṛtas tathāpi
yūtheśvarītvam api samyag arocayitvā dāsyāmṛtābdhim anusasnur ajasram asyāḥ

"Each line on these mañjarīs' toes defeats the bright splendour of lightning. They are cleverness personified and although they are qualified to be groupleaders of gopīs (yūtheśvarīs) they have no taste for this, but are always immersed in the nectar-ocean of Śrī Rādhikā's service."
From this it is very clear that the manjaris are supremely attractive themselves, so they do not seem to answer the description of the first group of sakhīs above.

8.88 The nitya sakhī or mañjarī refuses to enjoy with Kṛṣṇa – in his commentary, Viśvanāth Cakravartī writes - tvayā saha svāṅga-saṅga-sukhād api jāla-randhrādau śrī-rādhāṅga-saṅga-darśanotthaṁ sukham adhikam anubhūtaṁ man-manasā nahi labdhādhika-sukhā janā alpe sukhe pravartanta iti bhāvaḥ. tataś ca māstu tava sukhaṁ mat-sukhaṁ tu kurv iti śrī-rādhikā-datta-cara-mantraṇena śrī-kṛṣṇena sā balā sambhuktaiveti jñeyam ‘More than my own bodily pleasures with Kṛṣṇa I enjoy to peep through the slits of the kuñja to see Kṛṣṇa enjoying with Śrī Rādhā. Why would my mind accept a lesser happiness when a greater one is available? But then Śrī Rādhā may advise her: ‘Leave your own happiness and make Me happy instead. Then that girl had herself enjoyed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa anyway.”

8.115  Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā -  ābhīra, he abhimanyo sūrya-pūjāyāṁ snānādy-arthaṁ kapilā-dugdham apekṣitam atas tvaṁ gāṁ dugdhvā paya āgamaya ānaya | aruṇām iti | yā hi sarvāṅgeṣv aruṇa-varṇā, atha ca piṅgākṣī saiva pataṅgasya sūryasya priyā kapileti tām anyaḥ paricetuṁ na ṣakṣyatīty anyo na preṣaṇīya iti bhāvaḥ
In aṣṭakālīya līlā it is mentioned that Rādhikā is ordered to go out and get milk from a Kapila [brown] cow. From this commentary it becomes clear why – a cow which is red in all its limbs and has brown eyes is dear to Sūrya deva. Its milk is required for Sūrya pūjā.

8.120  Viśvanāth Cakravartī quotes Garuḍa Purāṇa:
śuṣkaṁ māṁsaṁ striyo vṛddhā bālārkas taruṇaṁ dadhi
prabhāte maithunaṁ nidrā sadyaḥ prāṇaharāṇi ṣaṭ
"Dry meat, an old woman, the sunrise, fresh yoghurt, sleeping or mating after dawn take away one’s life."

8.127 A kṛṣṇa snehādhikā sakhī does feel much for her sakhī-groupleader, but still feels slightly more affection for Kṛṣṇa .

8.131 Vice versa for the sakhī-snehādhikā. Kṛṣṇa will love you automatically if you love Rādhā.

8.137 – Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - nanu tāḥ katham anugamanānarhāḥ? ucyate rāgānugīya-bhakta-mate śrī-kṛṣṇād anyūna-prītimattayaivānujigamiṣitā gopī khalv anugamyate. tasmān nyūna-prītyāpy anugamane vācye vaidhād rāgasya ko viśeṣaḥ? bhaktānugatiṁ vinā vaidha-bhakter apy asiddheḥ. tasmāc chrī-kṛṣṇe`dhikā sakhī tad-anujigamiṣubhir janaiḥ śrī-kṛṣṇād anyūna-prīti-viṣayīkartavyā.
How are they to be followed? It is said that in the opinion of the rāgānugā-bhakta one should follow a gopī whom one loves not less than Śrī Kṛṣṇa. If one follows a gopī in spite of having less love for her than for  Kṛṣṇa  then what is the difference between vaidhi-bhakti and rāgānugā bhakti? Even vaidhi-bhakti fails to lead to perfection without following devotees. Hence in rāgānugā-bhakti, devotees who wish to follow a sakhī with more love for Kṛṣṇa should not have less love for that sakhi than for Kṛṣṇa."
From this it appears that following in the footsteps of a kṛṣṇa-snehadhika, bhakti is only rāgānugā bhakti if one loves the kṛṣṇa-snehādhikā rāgātmikā devotee more than Kṛṣṇa.

9.43 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - 
"As long as there is no mixing of bhakti with the antaḥkaraṇa (subtle body of mind, intelligence, consciousness), the functions of the mind such as attachment and hatred will remain as material anarthas. When sulfur is added to mercury there is no immediate mixing, but after repeated rubbing, after a long time, they mix. Sulfur then gives up its original nature and takes a different form. Similarly the material nature of the antaḥkaraṇa is gradually destroyed and becomes spiritual. Just as sulfur and mercury eventually become one substance as collyrium, so bhakti and the antaḥkaraṇa become one as prema. Though mercury does not combine with other substances, sulfur transforms by rubbing into another form, and by heating, it gradually matures and takes on a unique form and name. The uncontaminated Lord, in the form of chanting or other processes, enters the antaḥkaraṇa endowed with attraction through the ears or other senses and rubbing against it by its power, makes the antaḥkaraṇa take on a spiritual form. By heating that combination till it matures to higher and higher states, it then attains the unique forms and names of prema, sneha, praṇaya, rāga, anurāga and mahābhāva. Just as the mature combination takes on varieties by mixing with favorable elements, so prema takes on forms such as dasya or sakhya by mixing with bhavas of a servant, friend, parent or lover. The prema of the sādhana-siddhas has been described in this way. What doubt is there then about the prema of the nitya-siddhas?

9.48- Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - 
"A follower of Vṛndā, a deity of the forest, curious about the conclusions of prema, asks “If Kṛṣṇa attains happiness by enjoyment with Candrāvalī, which is also your goal—to give him happiness--then why are you inimical to her? Why do you get angry when he frustrates your desires and meets with her?”
Rādhā teaches her the principle. "Candrāvalī can also mean the moon in the twelve months. The moon is always endowed with faulty marks. Or, she deals with Kṛṣṇa as a neutral party, because of having great respect. The moon is impure, having marks on its surface. She is devoid of the natural crookedness of prema, which moves crooked like a snake. By its nature the moon gives suffering, being cool. Or she is without intelligence. Or by her respect, friendliness is lost. The moon or she is skilful at closing the beautiful lotuses. Or the word vaidagdhi can mean the opposite. She is skilful at closing lotuses because of incompetence. She, the lotus, does not give happiness to the Kṛṣṇa-bee. The moon is brilliant in the night, not the day. In her mind (antara) she is joyful at seeing her faults as good qualities. She does not see her neutral nature as a fault. The moon appears (sphuraṇam) in the eastern direction (harer āśayaḥ). Or she has a slight appearance of desire for Kṛṣṇa, but not an actual desire. She should produce another form. Seeing the moon, or considering Candrāvalī, who can tolerate this? One can tolerate her on earth, but all will discover her malice. Therefore she should not criticize again. Let her be like that. Her relationship with Kṛṣṇa will be finished. It is not unsuitable that I hate her. What is tasty to eat, one takes and prepares. If someone produces occasions for taking things which are tasteless, then will one become angry or not at that person? Consider this and then tell me."
In this way she revealed the truth about prema.

Monday, October 17, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 2



Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 3.37:
aprasūtikā iti | tāsāṁ puṣpodgamābhāvān nitya-vilāsārthaṁ yoga-māyayaiva sampāditatvāt -
“The gopīs never delivered babies because they have no menstruation. Yogamāyā arranged this to make them suitable for eternal enjoyment (by Kṛṣṇa. In this way they never get pregnant and Kṛṣṇa fulfills His status of dhīra lalita, who is niścinta, carefree).”

3.38| tac ca sat-kula-kanyānāṁ tāsāṁ stanādy-udghāṭanāsambhavād eva
Jīva Goswāmī: “A girl of good family does not have such fully developed breasts at the marriageable age.” This means that high class girls were married earlier than low caste girls.

manuṣya-deva-gandharvādi-janmāntaram ity arthaḥ | yad vā, martyā mānuṣyāḥ amartyā hariṇyādayaḥ | hiraṇyāṅgī haridvarṇā hariṇī-garbha-sambhavā iti bṛhad-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikokteḥ |

“Recent gopīs [that appear with Kṛṣṇa for the first time in His manifest pastimes] may appear from animal wombs, like for instance Hiranyāṅgī, who is mentioned in Śrī Rūpa Goswāmī’s Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Gaṇoddeśa Dīpikā [101] as appearing from the womb of a deer. If that means she appeared from the deer as a human or a deer is not clear here but I suppose she was human still.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Tika on UN 3.49-51 -
bhāvini rāmāvatāre rāma-saundarya-darśitvena prasiddhānāṁ daṇḍakāraṇya-vāsināṁ gopālopāsakānāṁ munīnām avaśyambhāvitvāt | na caitat kalpa-vṛtta-rāmāvatāra-gatā eva te munayo bhāviny api rāmāvatāre bhavitum arhantīti vācyam | etat-kalpa-vṛtta-śrī-kṛṣṇāvatāra eva teṣāṁ prāpta-gopikā-rūpatvena siddhatvāt siddhānāṁ punaḥ sādhakatvāyogāt | na ca maivaṁ bhaviṣyanti munaya iti vācyam | bhāvini kṛṣṇāvatāre rāsārmabhe antar-gṛha-gatānāṁ kṛṣṇa-viraheṇa deha-tyāgavatīnāṁ gopīnām avaśyambhāvitvāt | tās tarhi kā bhaviṣyanti etat-kalpa-vṛtta-muni-caryā eveti cen na | tāsāṁ siddha-dehatvena punar deha-tyāgāyogāt | yogamāyā eva deha-tyāgaṁ pratyāyayatīti cen na | siddhā api dehaṁ tatyajur iti prasiddher api jugupsitatvena tathā tat-karaṇāyogāt | tasmāt sādhaka-bhaktānām anantatvāt | pratikalpa eva te munayo’nye’nya eva bhavanti | ta eva kṛṣṇāvatāre navīnāṁ municaryo gopyas tāsām eva kāścid antar-gṛha-gatā dehaṁ tyajantīti 

“In the future again other sages will become attracted to Śrī Rāma’s beauty and take birth as gopīs in a future manifest pastime of Kṛṣṇa. Why can it not be the same sages? That is not possible because these sages/gopis attained perfection [siddhi] as they left their bodies in their houses when Kṛṣṇa lured them to the Rāsa-dance with His flute playing. It would be distasteful and impossible if siddhas would again turn into sādhakas.“ This means that the sādhakas who are promoted to Kṛṣṇa’s manifest pastimes for further training still have material bodies. These bodies must be of some higher quality because Viśvanātha Cakravartī earlier said that the material body cannot tolerate rāga, anurāga etc.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 3.52-53 - 
bhaktāś ca trividhāḥ sva-vāsanānusāreṇa tal-līlā-parikarāṇāṁ śuddhānugatimanto’haṅgrahopāsanā-mayānugatimanto’nanugatimantaś ca | tatrādyāḥ kecid devāḥ śrīdāma-subalādīnāṁ priya-sakhāḥ | kāścid devyaś ca śrī-rādhādīnāṁ prāṇa-sakhyaḥ | tathā nanda-yaśodādīnām api sakhāyaḥ sakhyaś cānubhavan | dvitīyās teṣu tāsu ca prāviśan | droṇa-dharā-vasv-ādayo yathā nanda-yaśododdhavādiṣu tathā ṛṣayo’pi kecit go-vatseṣu vṛndāvanīya-pakṣiṣu ca | tṛtīyās tu tatra prādurbhāvābhāvenālabdha-manorathā eva babhūvur yathā lakṣmy-ādaya iti | tal-līlā-parikarānugatitām eva tat-prāpti-niyamanāt.

“There are three types of eternally beloveds of Kṛṣṇa in the heavenly planets – those who purely follow the līlā-parikaras (eternal associates of Kṛṣṇa)  according to their own vāsanās (spiritual aspirations), those who worship themselves as these associates (ahaṅgropāsanā) and those who do not follow Kṛṣṇa's associates. Some devatās in the first group become dear friends of Śrīdāma and Subal, while some Devis become hearts friends (prāṇa sakhīs) of gopīs like Śrī Rādhā while again others become friends or girlfriends of Nanda and Yaśodā etc. The second group enters (merges) into these associates of Kṛṣṇa, like Drona merged with Nanda, Dharā with Yaśodā and Vasu with Uddhava. Seers (ṛṣis) may also merge with the cows, calves, birds etc. of Vṛndāvana. The third group do not have their desires fulfilled (do not attain these associates) due to a lack of appearance (of the appropriate feeling and attitude), examples are Lakṣmī and others. The rule for attaining an associate of Kṛṣṇa is allegiance to him or her.”

yūthādhipātve‘py aucityaṁ dadhānā lalitādayaḥ |
sveṣṭa-rādhādi-bhāvasya lobhāt sakhya-ruciṁ dadhuḥ 

Though Lalitā, Viśākhā, Padmā and Śaibyā are capable of being leaders, because of their mood of serving other leaders like Rādhā, they have a taste as friends of leaders. Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi 3.61

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.3 śrīmaj-jīva-gosvāmi-caraṇānāṁ vyākhyānāt rukmiṇy-ādīnāṁ hlādinī-śaktitve’pi na mahā-bhāva-rūpatvaṁ vraja-devīnāṁ śrī-rādhāyā evāṁśa-bhūtānāṁ mahā-bhāvāṁśa-rūpatve’pi mahā-bhāva-sāra-bhūta-mādana-bhāgābhāvān na mahā-bhāva-svarūpatvam | yathā nada-nadī-taḍāgādīnāṁ jalāśayatve’pi na jaladhitvam

“Rukmini and others, though being of the pleasure potency hlādinī śakti, do not have mahābhāva. The women of Vraja, particles of Rādhā, are particles of mahābhāva, but they are not the svarūpa of mahābhāva since they lack the essential portion of mahābhāva called mādana. Rivers, streams and ponds, though reservoirs of water, are not like the ocean.”

A bit hard to understand the simile with the ocean – it seems the pond has the same quality but not the same quantity as the ocean, so this simile would suggest the other gopīs also have mādana mahābhāva but just in a smaller amount, but that is not the case.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.5, which quotes the famous yathā rādhā priya viṣṇos verse, praising Śrī Rādhākuṇḍa - 

tataś ca viṣṇor vyāpakasya rādhāyā ātma-buddhi-dehendriyādikam āśliṣya sthitasya sataḥ kṛṣṇasya yathā rādhā priyā viṣṇor jala-sthala-sopāna-nikuñjodyāna-kusuma-phala-vihaṅgama-kūjitādiṣu snānāvagāhanāsana-śayana-vihāra-darśanāvaghrāṇāsvādana-śravaṇādibhir vyāpya sthitasya priyam | nanu tasyānyā api gopyaḥ priyāḥ śrūyante | satyam | kintu sarva-gopīṣu viṣṇoḥ prakaṭitānanta-prakāśatvena tā api sarvā āśliṣya sthitasyāpi tasyānta-vallabhātvaṁ lakṣayatīty āyātam | yato rādhikā-yūtha evāyaṁ modano na tu sarvataḥ [u.nī.15.176] iti | tad-yūthasya sarva-yūthebhya utkarṣam uktvā – sarva-bhāvodgamollāsī mādano’yaṁ parāt paraḥ | rājate hlādinī-sāro rādhāyām eva yaḥ sadā || [u.nī.15.219]

(The word Viṣṇu mentions in the śloka conventionally means ‘all-pervading’) “Just as Rādhā is dear to Kṛṣṇa who pervades and embraces Rādhā’s soul, intelligence, body and senses - her kuṇḍa is similarly dear to Kṛṣṇa (viṣṇoḥ), who pervades the water, steps, groves, gardens, flowers, fruits, birds and their cooing by bathing, sitting, reclining, playing, seeing, smelling, tasting and hearing at that kuṇḍa. “But it is heard that other gopīs are also dear to Kṛṣṇa.” That is true, but this is included in the verse as it says they are very dear to Him too (atyanta ballabha) as He pervades (embraces) them all too in innumerable manifestations (forms). Because it is said rādhikā-yūtha evāyaṁ modano na tu sarvataḥ: modana exists only in Rādhā’s group (Ujjvala-Nīlamani.15.176), her group is also the best of all groups.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.47, which shows that Rādhā is Kṛṣṇa’s dearest sweetheart (kṛṣṇa priyāvalī mukhyā)- tvad-vapuṣaḥ pṛṣṭhādy-eka-pradeśā api dṛṣṭvā māṁ svastimantaṁ kurvanti tāsāṁ tādṛśāpāṅga-bhaṅgyo’pi neti bhāvaḥ

(Kṛṣṇa says:) “Even one part of Your body, like Your back, makes me happy, unlike the willful glances of them (the other gopis).”

Jīva Goswāmī quotes unknown śāstra in U.N. 5.11-

parakīyā dvidāḥ proktā paroḍhā kanyakā tathā yātrādi-niratāny oḍhā kulaṭā galita-trapā kanyā tv ajātopayamā salajjā nava-yauvanā

There are two kinds of parakīyās: the paroḍhā (married to another man) and the kanyakā (unmarried). The paroḍhā is engaged in worldly affairs, is unchaste and devoid of shame. The kanyā is not married, is shy and of fresh youth."

UN 5.94 - ced iyaṁ preyasā hātuṁ kṣaṇam apy atiduḥśakā |
parama-prema-vaśyatvān mādhavīti tadocyate ||

If Kṛṣṇa cannot give up his lover for even a moment because he is controlled by her prema, the svādhīna-bhartṛkā is called mādhavī.

UN 7.80- dhavam upekṣya kaṭhoram iyaṁ puraḥ parimalollasitā kila mādhavī |
śrayitum utkalikā-valitādbhutaṁ nanu bhavantam upaiti hali-priya

“This fragrant Mādhavī-vine ignored her hard husband to take shelter of a wonderful Kadamba tree.”

Saturday, October 08, 2011

Tapan Dā at Rādhākuṇḍa

It is time again for the annual niyam sevā for Kartik in Rādhākuṇḍa and the village fills up again with Bengali Vaiṣṇavas for the month of intense bhakti practises. One of them is my senior Gurubrother Tapan Kumār Adhikārī, who has moved his residence from Ranchi to Asansol recently and travelled here with Viśvānanda Avadhūt. He is staying in Gadādhar Caitanya Mandir on the bank of Śyāmakuṇḍa. He went on Girirāja parikramā alone yesterday and is visiting me now in my kutir at Lalita Kund.

I ask him why Baba worshipped Śiva as Gopeśvara instead of Gopīśvara. He tells me the story of how the gopīs worshipped Kātyāyanī Devi for a whole winter month, when they were just 6 years old and that Bābā considered Gopeśvara to be Kṛṣṇa. He will ask the answer to that question to Kumkum Da when he meets him during the upcoming festival for Bābā’s viraha. Bābā said that Madan Gopāl is spreading out His hand (as Laḍḍu Gopāl) because he begs for the loving gifts of His devotees, the gifts of prema sevā. I ask him if I do not commit aparādha by preaching Bābā’s glories – they are confidential and those who do not understand may criticise him. Bābā himself was also averse to preaching. Tapan Dā quotes Bābā saying that the elephant will walk on even if the dogs may bark around him. He also says that the śiṣya can attract people to the Guru by his strong sādhana and preaching of rāgānugā bhakti, something which Krishna Di and Niranjan Babu both told me too, independently, more than 10 years ago. The flower spreads its sweet fragrance to the connoisseurs who are ready to appreciate it.

I ask if the story of Bābā seeing the sādhus at night when he was deciding whether to marry or to stay celibate (see Satīnāth Datta’s hagiography of Sādhu Bābā on madangopal.com) was a real story or a divine vision. Tapan Dā says, as I expected, it was a divine vision. He says about the story that Bābā was immersed in the Gangā while Jñāna Dā went shopping that it was Bābā's own wish, so He could do his sādhana in peace.

Tapan Dā tries to convince me to come with him to Navadwip, very embarrassing because I am so attached to Rādhākuṇḍa that I just want to stay here. I beg him and the didis forgiveness. Tapan Dā tells me some surprising details about himself. He is only 52 years old, 3 years younger than me even, and joined in 1983, a year after me too. He is a brahmin from Katwa (Mau Gram), whose family has been worshipping Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa vigraha for the last 300 years. His father, following kula-prathā (family tradition) took dīkṣā from Ānanda Gopāl Goswāmī, so Tapan Dā was not a newcomer to the family. He will get a pension at 60 and he will try to make a kutir at Rādhākuṇḍa at that time.

Sunday, October 02, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 1

Ujjvala Nilamani is a sequel of Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu, written by Śrī Rūpa Goswāmī because he found the topic of amorous love of Kṛṣṇa was too extensive to include in it. Naturally this is a confidential item of śāstra, yet it should be discussed, for true devotees will appreciate it in its true value. In his brief commentary Jīva Goswāmī appears to support svakīya vāda (married love of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa) and in his lengthier commentary Srī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda seems to support parakīya vāda (extramarital love). They only clash in a few places, though, not throughout the book. This scripture shows an almost endless variety of male and female lovers and the situations they may end up in.

Chapter 1 deals with the varieties of Nāyakas (amorous heroes). In his commentary of verse 1.23, Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda argues that, why Kṛṣṇa was named Govinda during His abhisekha by the Surabhi cow after He lifted Mount Govardhan? Is this name not eternal?

anyathā govindābhiṣekāt pūrvam eva pūtanā supayaḥ pānānantaraṁ bīja-nyāsaṁ kurvatyo vraja-vara-vadhvaḥ krīḍantaṁ pātu govindaḥ [ṣ.B. 10.6.25] iti guṇa-gāne ca govinda-veṇum anumatta-mayūra-nṛtyam iti kathaṁ vadeyuḥ -

Previously in the 10th canto, during the narration of the killing of Putanā, the Vrajabāsī women assigned nyāsa [seed-letters] to Kṛṣṇa,  saying ‘may Govinda protect You at play’ (though this is more likely to refer to the Vaikuṇṭha-deity Govinda) and the young gopīs praised Kṛṣṇa's flute long before the abhiṣekha-pastime, in chapter 21’s ‘Veṇu Gīta’ ‘the peacocks dance like mad, when they hear Govinda’s flute’

tena yat-karma-viśiṣṭasya yasya rūpasya yan nāma tat-karma-viśiṣṭaṁ tad-rūpaṁ nityam eva | loke paraṁ teṣāṁ bhaktānāṁ tat-tad-rasānubhavārthaṁ krameṇāvirbhāvaḥ 

“Thus the name related to a form of the Lord performing some action is as eternal as that action. They gradually manifest in the world so the devotees can experience their divine flavours.”

abhimanyu-prabhṛtiṣu pati-bhāvas tu māyika eva | cid-rūpāṇāṁ śrī-rādhādīnāṁ cid-rūpeṣu patiṣv abhimanyu-prabhṛtiṣu sārvakālika-dveṣānyathānupapattyā madhye pati-bhāva-rūpā māyā svāṁśa-bhūtā śrī-yoga-māyayaiva sthāpitā | prākṛtīnāṁ strīṇāṁ pariṇetṛṣu pati-bhāvasya prāpañcikatvād anityatvam | gopīnāṁ tu pariṇetṛṣu patibhāvasya māyā-kalpitatve bhagaval-līlā-tantra-madhya-vartitvāt māyāyāś cāsyā yogamāyānumoditatvāc ca nityatvam eveti viśeṣaḥ | mohanaṁ tu tāsāṁ yogamāyyaiva guṇātīttvān na tu māyayā

“Abhimanyu and other cowherd men’s esteem of being the gopīs’ husbands is false [māyik]. The forms of Śrī Rādhā and other gopīs are transcendental; it would be inappropriate for Abhimanyu and others like him to cherish eternal hatred towards them. Mahāmāyā is an expansion of Yogamāyā and she arranges their husband-esteem. To think of oneself as the husband of a material woman is mundane and temporary. The gopīs’ idea that these men are their husbands is also created by māyā, but since it all takes place in the context of the Lord’s transcendental pastimes it is endorsed by Yogamāyā and thus also eternal.”

Chapter 2 deals with the variety of assistants of the hero. In his commentary on verse 2.15, Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda mentions mañjarī bhāva - 

tāś ca lalitādyāḥ parama-preṣṭha-sakhy-ādaya uttarās tu tad-dvayābhāvāt kadāpi kṛṣṇāṅga-saṅga-spṛhāvatyo na bhavanti | tāś ca kastūryādayo nitya-sakhyas tatra vyākyāta-lakṣaṇaṁ pūrvāsāṁ śrī-kṛṣṇāṅga-saṅga-spṛhā-rūpam aṁśam udāhartum āha yathā veti 

‘There are parama preṣṭha sakhīs like Lalitā and others, and there are nitya sakhīs, like Kasturī Mañjarī, who never ever desire the bodily association of Kṛṣṇa.

Chapter 3 deals with the variety of Hari’s sweethearts.
Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.2 - 


kāminīnāṁ yauvana-mada eva lalitānīti nyāyenoktir vastutas tu tāsāṁ nitya-siddhaiva sarva-vaidagdhī svāvasaraṁ prāpya udayate | dṛṣṭaṁ ca tathā rāsa-krīḍāyāṁ gāna-nṛtyādiṣu prāvīṇyam tat-tac-chāstra-kṛdbhirapi durgamam


“Pride of youth causes the attainment of all cleverness in nitya siddha girls. They learn expertise in the arts of dancing, singing, etc. during the Rāsa-pastimes, that are rarely attained even by the authors of śāstra, just by looking.” So no long studies at Bhārat Nātyam colleges or lengthy mṛdaṅga-lessons in mañjarī svarūpa. Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda writes elsewhere that to attain perfection a devotee needs to take birth first in Kṛṣṇa's earthly pastimes before being promoted to Goloka, but that is not to gain practical skills. Only to develop further prema.

Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.13

tatrāpi paroḍhānāṁ śrī-rādhādīnāṁ dāsyaḥ kāścana śrī-vṛṣabhānv-ādibhir vivāha-kāle dattāḥ kanyakā eva kāścana tad-anyā rūpa-mañjary-ādayaḥ paroḍhā eva jñeyāḥ | bimbādhare kṣatam anāgata bhartṛkāyāḥ [vilāpa-kusumāñjali 1] iti śrī-dāsa-gosvāmy-ukteḥ | arvācīnānāṁ sādhaka-bhaktānāṁ tu bhāvo yathā-ruci yathā-sampradāyaṁ vā phaliṣyatīti boddhavyam


“Some of the maidservants that were given at marriage by the fathers of the brides like Vṛṣabhānu, were not married and some, like Rūpa Mañjarī, were. The evidence for Rūpa Mañjarī being married is found in the opening verse of Śrīla Raghunāth Dās Goswāmī’s Vilāpa Kusumāñjali. The feelings of the contemporary sādhakas will bear fruit according to feeling and sampradāya.” yathā sampradāya cannot mean ‘according to sampradāya like Rāmānuja, Madhva etc.’, because only the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sampradāya has mañjarī-bhāva. Therefore it should mean according to Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava sub-branch like Advaita- and Nityānanda parivāras. Ironically Sādhu Bābā quoted exactly the same verse to me to prove that Rūpa Mañjarī is not married, as anāgata means ‘not come’; in other words Rūpa Mañjarī’s husband was not yet found. Anyway, Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda reconciles it neatly afterwards by saying yathā ruci yathā sampradāya, it is accomplished according to one’s own taste and lineage.

3.19 kanyakāś ca paroḍhāś ca parakīyā dvidhā matāḥ

Verse by Rūpa Goswāmī – “there are two kinds of parakīya relationships – not only of a married girl with another man but also of an unmarried [maiden] with a man.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.19: 
kāścit tadānīṁ deśāntarāt samāgatyāpi samātṛkāḥ sthitā iti jñeyāḥ : 

“Some unmarried gopīs came from outside of Vraja, with their mothers.”

3.21 yatra niṣedha-viśeṣaḥ sudurlabhatvaṁ ca yan mṛgākṣīṇām tatraiva nāgarāṇāṁ nirbharam āsajjate hṛdayam

“When a woman forbids a man to approach her and is hard to attain, it increases the attachment of the heart for the amorous hero (suitor).”

Rūpa Goswāmī condemns sahajīya imitationists in UN 3.24: 
vartitavyaṁ śam icchadbhir bhaktavan na tu kṛṣṇavat -

“Those who desire their own welfare should act as devotees, not as Kṛṣṇa.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments on UN 3.33:

gopīnāṁ gopair vivāhasya māyikatve’pi nitya-satyatvam eva jñeyam | manyamānā ity abhiprāya-mātraṁ na tu māyā-kalpitānām api tāsāṁ patibhiḥ sambhoga iti tāsāṁ tad-ākāra-tulyākārāṇām anya-sambhuktatvasyānaucityāt | ata eva sva-pārśva-sthān iti | na tu talpa-sthān ity uktam | tac ca samādhānaṁ yogamāyayaiva tat-patīnāṁ puṁstve’pi kāma-vikārān udbhāvanāt | ata eva tan-mātrādibhiḥ prārthitānām api teṣāṁ teṣāṁ gopānāṁ gopālānāṁ śālli-kṣetrādāv eva śiśayiṣā prāyo na tu sva-gṛheṣv api svīya-tad-bhāvasya prākaṭyābhāvāyeti jñeyam –

“Though the gopīs’ marriages with the gopas are false they are also eternally real. The cowherds did not enjoy those forms made of māyā as it would be inappropriate to enjoy other forms that looked just like them. Hence it is said (in this Bhāgavat-verse 10.33.38 quoted here) ‘they thought their wives to be by their sides’, not ‘they thought their wives to be in their beds. The solution was provided by Yogamāyā: though the husbands were potent they had no male transformations in the presence of their gopī-wives. Though their mothers asked them (to sleep with their wives) they slept in the cow-barns, because they did not have that bhāva (desire) for their wives.”

3.37 aprasūtitve sati tāsām ālambanatvaṁ vairūpyeṇa dūṣyate

“The gopīs could not have delivered babies because the disfigurement would have polluted them (made them unqualified for enjoyment by Kṛṣṇa).”


ata eva duhantyo’bhiyayuḥ ityādau, pāyayantyaḥ śiśūn payaḥ ity eva śrī-śuka-vākyaṁ na tu pāyayantyaḥ sutān stanam iti | kvacit tad-vidheṣu putrādi-vyapadeśo dṛśyate yathā sāmba-kṛta-lakṣmaṇā-haraṇe śrī-baladevam uddiśya |
pratigṛhya tu tat-sarvaṁ bhagavān sātvatarṣabhaḥ |
sa-sutaḥ sa-snuṣaḥ prāgāt suhṛdbhir abhinanditaḥ || iti ||37||

"Sometimes it is mentioned that the gopīs' abandoned their children to dance with Kṛṣṇa,  but wherever there is any mentioning of them having sons it does not mean their own sons, just as when Lord Baladev rescued Sāmba (Śrīmad Bhāgavat 10.68.52), Sāmba is mentioned as his son though he was not directly his son. Also the Bhāgavat mentions the gopis fed milk to children, but not their breast milk. It is said śiśūn payaḥ, they fed milk to children (cows’ milk), not ‘they breast-fed their own children’ (pāyayantyaḥ sutān stanam)."

Monday, September 19, 2011

Śrīmad Bhāgavat Canto 12, part 2


12.9.25 Kṛṣṇa does not know the limit to the sweetness of His own toes as He sucks them on the Banyan leaf on the ocean of cataclysm. Kavi Karṇapur sucked Mahāprabhu’s toe as a toddler and as a result he wrote so many beautiful books like Caitanya Candrodaya, Gaur Ganoddeśa Deepika and Kṛṣṇāhnika Kaumudī. Viśvanātha’s tika : mac-caraṇāmbuje kīdṛśaṁ madhu vartate yata etad āsvādanārthaṁ bahavo mad-bhaktā yatante tasmād idam aham apy āsvādya pariceṣye - « What honey is there in My lotus-feet? Since many of My devotees try to taste it, so should I. » Though Kṛṣṇa is the vessel of all sweetness He can still not relish it. Whatever or whoever is unlimited can not reach his own limit, and it has been said earlier in the 10th canto, chapter 87, that the Lord does not know His own limits. That is why He became Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, to find the limits of His own sweetness and the love that Rādhā feels for Him. Śrī Ānanda Gopāl Goswāmī said in his Vilāpa Kusumāñjali lectures that Mahāprabhu never reached that limit and He never will, and this establishes the eternality of Gaura Līlā. This form of Baṭa Kṛṣṇa,  lying on the Banyan leaf, is also eternal, like all of the Lord’s forms and He also never finds the limit to the sweetness of His own toe. Not only that, Śrīla Rūpa Goswāmī even taught ‘vibhur api kalayann sadābhivṛddhim’ – Although the bliss and sweetness of Kṛṣṇa līlā is unlimited, it is still ever-increasing.

12.10.23 In his commentary Jīva Goswāmī explains that the words devāś cetanojjhitā [lifeless statues] do not refer to deities of Lord Viṣṇu, but to statues of Indra and other devatās. Speaking of deities, there is a belief that once the deity is installed, the deity will accept all service from any and every devotee. That is a very bureaucratic vision. Śrīdhar Swāmī comments on Bhagavad Gītā 9.26 tasya prayatātmanaḥ śuddha-cittasya niṣkāma-bhaktasya tat-patra-puṣpādikaṁ bhaktyā tena upahṛtaṁ samarpitam aham aśnāmi ‘prayatātmana means that I [Kṛṣṇa] will eat offerings from a pure-hearted devotee without selfish desires’ and Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments kiṁ ca mad-bhaktasyāpy apavitra-śarīratve sati nāśnāmīty āha prayatātmanaḥ śuddha-śarīrasyeti rajaḥsvalādayo vyāvṛttāḥ ‘Even if one is a devotee, if he/she has an impure body i will not eat the offering. The body must be pure, especially from menstruation.’

12.10.26 Lord Shiva is praising Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi, who can not get enough of hearing about it. According to Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda it does not mean Mārkaṇḍeya was so proud or narcistic. Rather he felt like being instructed [and encouraged] as to what type of a person he should actually be.

12.11.20 In his ṭīkā, Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda seems to say that the hlādinī śakti is represented in the happiness of swarg, which would validate the theory that material pleasure is a reflection of the spiritual hlādinī śakti:

anapāyinī eka-rūpā sākṣāt svarūpa-bhūtā śaktiḥ | asyāhlādinī-śakter vibhūtir laukikaḥ svargādy-ānanda ūhyaḥ | tantra-mūrtiḥ pañcarātrādy-āgama-rūpaḥ pañcarātrādy-āgamā viṣvaksenasya vibhūtaya ity arthaḥ | harer dvāḥsthā ye nandādayaḥ, te’pi aṇimādyā guṇā anya-gatā vibhūtayaḥ

However the word used here is vibhūti, not pratibimba or chāyā. vibhuti like in Bhagavad Gītā, chapter 10, representing Kṛṣṇa's prowess and glory only.

12.11.50 lokan avatyaja - the sun is the protector of the world, because crime – mugging, burglary, murder, rape - usually is committed at night. Daylight gives security to mankind, except in times of war or natural disaster of course.

12.12.49 Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda’s tika -
asya śāstrasya kṛṣṇa-kīrtana eva tātparyāt, tad anya-kīrtanam avigītam api na kuryāt | tat kīrtanaṁ yat paśubhir vigītatvenoktaṁ tad api kuryād ity āha—mṛṣeti | tāḥ satyā api giro mithyā eva | priyā api giro’satīr asatyaḥ kaṭūktaya eva | tathā satāṁ viduṣām api kathā asat-kathā eva | kutaḥ ? yad yato bhagavān na kathyate iti | ataḥ sa satyavādy api mithyā-vādī priyaṁvado’pi kaṭu-bhāṣī sat-kathako’py asat-kathaka ucyate iti bhāvaḥ | svakalpitatvād asatyam api bhagavad-yaśaś cet tad eva satyaṁ gṛhāśrama-vidhvaṁsakatvāt amaṅgalam api tad eva maṅgalaṁ nānyat bhagavataḥ para-dāra-haraṇādikam apuṇyatvenādhamair uktam api tad eva puṇyam | yato bhagavato guṇasyaiva na tu doṣasyodayo yasmāt tat

« The purpose of śāstra is to glorify Kṛṣṇa – others’ glorification, even if not done badly, should still not be done. However, even if animals glorify the Lord badly, that should be done. Though the words are true they are also false. Though the words are dear they are still unchaste, false and bitter. Even if the words are uttered by learned persons they are not real. Why? Because they do not describe the Lord. In this way even truthful persons are liars, sweet talkers are bitter speakers etc. If the words are false because they come from one’s imagination, they are still true if they glorify the Lord. »

This last sentence is significant. Even if the great poets who wrote so many volumes of Kṛṣṇa-kathā in the past, have just used their poetic skills of imagination [kavir kalpana], still they are all true because Kṛṣṇa is the Absolute Truth and any story which is projected upon Him will be the Absolute truth too. Mahāprabhu has proclaimed this, adding that the only rules are that there should be no apasiddhānta (wrong philosophy) or rasābhāsa (bad taste). This verse is not a glorification but actual truth.
Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda continues : « If the words are inauspicious because they destroy the householders world they are actually auspicious. »
In India the gṛhasthas invite the sādhu to lecture them and they know they will get the sauce for being materialistic and bodily conscious. They are prepared for that and they humbly accept their verdict without arguing or finding excuses.
Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda continues : « Even if fallen rascals say that the Lord’s eloping with other men’s wives is immoral, still it is virtuous [pure] »
Whatever touches the Cintāmaṇi-gem turns into gold, and similarly whatever act Kṛṣṇa performs is sacred, even if it externally appears to be sinful or immoral.

12.12.52 Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā - "Just as sacred mantras are starting and ending with a bīja, this Bhāgavatam begins and ends with the same verses. From this it is clear that endings like svāhā and pracodayāt are also considered beejas."
Bhānu Swāmī incorrectly translated the words sthāne sthita in Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's ṭīkā of SB 10.14.3, as ‘remaining in one’s social status’. Actually Viśvanātha says satāṁ nivāsa eva sthitāḥ – remain in the abode of a saint, na tu tīrthānyapyaṭantaḥ, but do not wander all over the holy places.

12.13.23 the very last verse of the Bhāgavat. In his ṭīkā Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda acknowledges that all kinds of non-dualist philosophies are included in the Bhāgavat -  ārambhe pariṇāme ca vivarte’pi na hi kṣatiḥ śrīmad-bhāgavate bhakteḥ puruṣrtha-śiromaṇeḥ - "ārambha-vāda, pariṇāma-vāda and vivarta-vāda in the Bhagavat do not harm it – it [nonetheless] propounds bhakti as the crown-jewel of life’s goals." Jīva Goswāmī has established our siddhānta as acintya bhedābheda, and abheda is an equal part of that. It is perfectly reflected in the Bhāgavat, though the ācāryas have given a pure devotional slant to the abheda-verses in their commentaries. There is no ancient śāstra which is entirely fixed on one path or the other – though the Upaniṣads stress the path of brahman it has many personalist verses too and though the Bhāgavat obviously stresses bhakti, it has impersonalist verses too. But any honest person would acknowledge that the Bhāgavat is all about bhakti to Kṛṣṇa.

Saturday, September 10, 2011

Śrīmad Bhāgavat, 12th canto, part 1


Some interesting verses and commentaries from the 12th Canto of the Śrīmad Bhāgavata -

12.2.4 liṅgam evāśrama khyātā – in Kali-yuga one’s āśram is only shown by external signs. This predicts the current custom of giving and taking sannyāsa for political or economic reasons. Too often we see saintly gṛhasthas [so called fallen souls] and duplicitous sannyāsīs [so-called saints]. Time often shows that the struggling gṛhasthas had the most bhakti and the ‘great’ sannyāsīs fell flat on their faces. Veśa is after all just a few inches of textile. Only God knows what is on our hearts. Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments: prāptau liṅgam eva daṇḍājina-śikhā-tyāgādikam eva kāraṇaṁ na tu jñāna-sad-ācārādikam – “An āśram is seen by shaved heads, sannyāsa-staffs and antelope-skins, but not by knowledge or pure conduct.”
Verse 7 expands on that - ‘yaśo’rthe dharma sevanam – religion is served only for fame. In other words, devotees flag around their beadbags on the streets of holy places, with endlessly long counting-beads, to show off their huge sādhana for fame and, in extension, money.

12.2.14 śūdra prāyeṣu varṇesu - The castes are mostly converted into śūdras. Not all but most [prāyeṣu] castes will behave like śūdras. It means there will be qualified Brahmins too, especially since this verse could apply to the later stages of Kali, not the present stage.

12.2.15 yauna means related to the wife, not as Bhānu Swāmī says related to youth. He may have confused the word yauna for the word yauvana.

12.2.30 In the ṭīkā Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda writes that Kali yuga started on the moment when Duryodhana ordered the disrobing of Draupadī in the Kuru Sabhā.

12.3.20 says that in Kali yuga human qualities – the four legs of dharma – decrease gradually simultaneously, while SB 1.7.2.12, 24 and 25 say the legs of dharma disappear fully one by one in each yuga. I consulted Pandit Satya-nārāyan Dāsjī on this and he replied as follows [June 19, 2011]:

Dear Prabhuji,
Jai Śrī Rādhe Govinda!
In 1.1712 and 1.17.24 the words used for Dharma's legs are avṛścat and bhagnaḥ. Both mean broken and not cut off. The word avṛścat comes from the root ovṛścu means 'to pierce'. The word vṛścika, scorpion, comes from the same root; and you know what a scorpion does - it pierces. The word bhagnaḥ comes from the root bhaji, to break. So what it signifies is that the legs were broken but not completely removed or cut. In this chapter, because dharma is depicted as a bull so there is a little different presentation then in 12th canto where things are stated directly. Dramatic presentations may take a little lee-way to present things to
catch attention. Therfore Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments in line with the 12th canto description.
Hari om
snd

Also the verse and ṭīkās say that cleanliness is destroyed by vigraha, which means ‘discord’, though the tika of SB 1.17.38 says cleanliness is destroyed by strī saṅga. I inquired on this also from Śrī Satya Nārāyanjī –

"My next question is on SB 12.3.20 - both the śloka and the ṭīkās speak of cleanliness being destroyed by vigraha. Vigraha is translated as 'discord' by most translators, but in his ṭīkā of SB 1.17.38, Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda says that cleanliness is destroyed by stri-sanga. I could not find 'stri sanga' in the dictionary as a synonym for vigraha. If vigraha really means just 'discord', then how is it that conflict destroys cleanliness? It is more obvious that cleanliness is destroyed by sexual activities."

Satya Narayan Panditji replied:
Dear Prabhuji
Jai Śrī Rādhe Govinda
Why do you think that stri-sanga should be a synonym for vigraha? Stri-sanga would lead to discord and thus strisanga is the cause of vigraha. So Cakravartipada is going one step deeper. Vigraha means quarrel or fight. This itself is a sign of impurity. The real impurity is not that of body but of the mind. In kali-yuga vigraha is the prominent characteristic and Sri Caitanya said the remedy is sankirtana which removes the impurity of heart – ceto darpan marjanam. So vigraha comes from impurity of heart and also leads to impurity. The most of the wars in the world has been fought because of stri sanga (sanga here means not association but attachment), even Mahabharata was rooted in stri sanga. Duryodhana, Karna, Jayadratha etc have all hankered after Draupadi who was the exquisite beauty of her time.
Satya Narayan das

Duryodhana was not even able to lift the bow during Draupadī’s Swayamvar, and Karṇa was rejected by Draupadī even though he could lift the bow. As this is already a death-blow to the male ego, let alone a Kṣatriya’s male ego, they took revenge on her by trying to strip her in the Kuru assembly and calling her a whore. In return, to revenge that, Draupadī wanted them dead and pushed for war against the Kauravas, whenever even Kṛṣṇa or Yudhisthir wanted peace. So we see that attachment to women lies at the root of conflict, including the biggest war ever fought, the Kurukṣetra war.

12.3.43 – Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments here that trouble in Kali really starts after a sandhya of the yuga has passed. The sandhya or twilight means the first 12th part and a sandhyāṁśa is the last 12th part of a yuga, in the case of Kali that is 36,000 years (see SB 3.11.18-20), so the predictions in this chapter seem to be still relatively far off.

12.3.51 This is a very famous verse – though Kali yuga is an ocean of faults, there is one good quality about it – simply by Kṛṣṇa-kīrtan one attains all perfection. That perfection [param] is glossed by Viśvanātha as prema. Kīrtan does not only mean Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, as the BBT purport claims – there is līlā kīrtan, nāma kīrtan, padya kīrtan and even śāstra pārāyan can be considered kīrtan. Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments that just as a single powerful king can beat off innumerable robbers, similarly the one great quality of Kali, Kṛṣṇa-Kīrtan, can beat off all faults of the Kali age. It does not rely on meditation and other supportive practices, but of course if you meditate along with the kīrtan then so much the better.

12.3.52 Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda comments that all the sādhanas that are given in the other 3 yugas are covered by the Kali-yuga dharma of harināma. This comment is somehow missing in the edition of Bhānu Swāmījī. Harināma would have the same effect in the other three yugas, due to its timeless nature. In Kali-yuga, however, there is no other possibility (than harināma) because of the moral and mental weakness in this age.

12.5.1 Why Śukadeva spoke Brahma-jñāna as last chapter to Parīkṣit before he died of the snake-bite? Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda explains that it was to prove to the world how fixed Parīkṣit was in Kṛṣṇa consciousness – no jñāna kathā could distract him anymore from his Kṛṣṇa-meditation.

12.6.34 Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda’s tika: imaṁ sādhaka-deham āśrityeti sādhaka-daśāyām api smaryamāṇaṁ svasya siddha-deham āśritya tu smaryamāṇena sva-vipakṣeṇa saha vairaṁ na kuryād iti rāgānugīya-rasika-bhaktā abhiprāyam āhuḥ—kañcana avamantāram api 
"Taking shelter of a sādhaka body, which means taking shelter of a siddha body which is remembered even in the stage of sādhana, one should not have enmity towards even a group of gopīs of an opposing faction by remembering them. The followers of rāgānugā bhakti speak this purport.”
A very rasik purport suddenly. Here Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda acknowledges that meditation on the siddha body can and should be done within the sādhaka body. Though in siddha avasthā there is strong enmity towards the opposing faction [vipakṣa] of sakhīs, as Śrīla Raghunāth Dās Goswāmī showed when a leaf-cup of buttermilk was offered to him from Sakhīsthalī, the village of Candrāvalī, this is not to be imitated in the stage of sādhana, even if sādhana has reached the glorious level of meditation on the siddha body. Abhimanyu, Jaṭilā, Kuṭila are all pure devotees who are merely stage-performing being Kṛṣṇa’s enemies, just as demons like Hiraṇyakaśipu etc. were reincarnations of the pure devotees Jay and Vijay, but opposed Kṛṣṇa just to give Him the enjoyment of combat and adventure.

12.6.74 purport- Bhānu Swāmī mistakes the word sūryāśva to mean the horses of the sun-god, but it means ‘the sun who is [in this case] a horse.’

12.8.22 śoṣaṇa-mohana-sandīpana-tāpana-mādanākhyāni panca-mukhāni yasya tat -Stambhana seems to be missing in this list of 5 arrows by Śrīdhar Swāmī and Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda.  Also this verse mentions a five-headed arrow with all five lusty effects fixed on it while generally it is understood that Cupid has 5 separate arrows.

12.8.40prāṇa-buddhīndriyādibhis tvam eva sva-bhajanaṁ kārayasi punas tādṛśa-bhajanasya pratyupakāre’samartho ṛṇīva bhūtvā tat prema-vaśyo bhavasīty adbhutaṁ tava kṛpā-vaibhavam iti bhāvaḥ - "You [Kṛṣṇa] make us do Your bhajan, directing our life, intelligence and senses, and then again you become unable to reciprocate with such bhajan, having become subdued by our love for You. This is most astonishing – such is the force of Your mercy! »
In the Upaniṣads it is said yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tenaiva labhya – « Only he/she who was elected by the Lord can attain Him. »

Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda's Tika of 12.8.46 - na yatra abhayaṁ pāta-hetuka-bhayābhāvaḥ – In the spiritual world there is no fear of falling »
This is a very clear refutation of fall-vāda, which is akin to māyāvāda, as it claims that something perfect (the sādhana siddha and nitya siddha jīvas in the spiritual sky) can become imperfect, just as the māyāvādīs say that Brahman falls in māyā.

Friday, September 09, 2011

New hagiography Sadhu Baba


A new hagiography of Sādhu Bābā is completed in English today, and posted on my website, alongside my earlier humble effort to glorify Sādhu Bābā. As Satināth Da said in the introduction of his booklet:

"Actually it is not possible for an insignificant soul like me to fully reveal Çré-Çré Bäbä’s full divine form, but I will consider my effort a success if I can show at least a drop of this ocean. His extraordinary life is pervading the knowledge of His innumerable devotees. If they are all published perhaps we can create a garland of His entire life with different flower-like narrations."

Ramacandrapur's Sadhu Baba