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Monday, October 17, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 2



Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 3.37:
aprasūtikā iti | tāsāṁ puṣpodgamābhāvān nitya-vilāsārthaṁ yoga-māyayaiva sampāditatvāt -
“The gopīs never delivered babies because they have no menstruation. Yogamāyā arranged this to make them suitable for eternal enjoyment (by Kṛṣṇa. In this way they never get pregnant and Kṛṣṇa fulfills His status of dhīra lalita, who is niścinta, carefree).”

3.38| tac ca sat-kula-kanyānāṁ tāsāṁ stanādy-udghāṭanāsambhavād eva
Jīva Goswāmī: “A girl of good family does not have such fully developed breasts at the marriageable age.” This means that high class girls were married earlier than low caste girls.

manuṣya-deva-gandharvādi-janmāntaram ity arthaḥ | yad vā, martyā mānuṣyāḥ amartyā hariṇyādayaḥ | hiraṇyāṅgī haridvarṇā hariṇī-garbha-sambhavā iti bṛhad-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikokteḥ |

“Recent gopīs [that appear with Kṛṣṇa for the first time in His manifest pastimes] may appear from animal wombs, like for instance Hiranyāṅgī, who is mentioned in Śrī Rūpa Goswāmī’s Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Gaṇoddeśa Dīpikā [101] as appearing from the womb of a deer. If that means she appeared from the deer as a human or a deer is not clear here but I suppose she was human still.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Tika on UN 3.49-51 -
bhāvini rāmāvatāre rāma-saundarya-darśitvena prasiddhānāṁ daṇḍakāraṇya-vāsināṁ gopālopāsakānāṁ munīnām avaśyambhāvitvāt | na caitat kalpa-vṛtta-rāmāvatāra-gatā eva te munayo bhāviny api rāmāvatāre bhavitum arhantīti vācyam | etat-kalpa-vṛtta-śrī-kṛṣṇāvatāra eva teṣāṁ prāpta-gopikā-rūpatvena siddhatvāt siddhānāṁ punaḥ sādhakatvāyogāt | na ca maivaṁ bhaviṣyanti munaya iti vācyam | bhāvini kṛṣṇāvatāre rāsārmabhe antar-gṛha-gatānāṁ kṛṣṇa-viraheṇa deha-tyāgavatīnāṁ gopīnām avaśyambhāvitvāt | tās tarhi kā bhaviṣyanti etat-kalpa-vṛtta-muni-caryā eveti cen na | tāsāṁ siddha-dehatvena punar deha-tyāgāyogāt | yogamāyā eva deha-tyāgaṁ pratyāyayatīti cen na | siddhā api dehaṁ tatyajur iti prasiddher api jugupsitatvena tathā tat-karaṇāyogāt | tasmāt sādhaka-bhaktānām anantatvāt | pratikalpa eva te munayo’nye’nya eva bhavanti | ta eva kṛṣṇāvatāre navīnāṁ municaryo gopyas tāsām eva kāścid antar-gṛha-gatā dehaṁ tyajantīti 

“In the future again other sages will become attracted to Śrī Rāma’s beauty and take birth as gopīs in a future manifest pastime of Kṛṣṇa. Why can it not be the same sages? That is not possible because these sages/gopis attained perfection [siddhi] as they left their bodies in their houses when Kṛṣṇa lured them to the Rāsa-dance with His flute playing. It would be distasteful and impossible if siddhas would again turn into sādhakas.“ This means that the sādhakas who are promoted to Kṛṣṇa’s manifest pastimes for further training still have material bodies. These bodies must be of some higher quality because Viśvanātha Cakravartī earlier said that the material body cannot tolerate rāga, anurāga etc.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 3.52-53 - 
bhaktāś ca trividhāḥ sva-vāsanānusāreṇa tal-līlā-parikarāṇāṁ śuddhānugatimanto’haṅgrahopāsanā-mayānugatimanto’nanugatimantaś ca | tatrādyāḥ kecid devāḥ śrīdāma-subalādīnāṁ priya-sakhāḥ | kāścid devyaś ca śrī-rādhādīnāṁ prāṇa-sakhyaḥ | tathā nanda-yaśodādīnām api sakhāyaḥ sakhyaś cānubhavan | dvitīyās teṣu tāsu ca prāviśan | droṇa-dharā-vasv-ādayo yathā nanda-yaśododdhavādiṣu tathā ṛṣayo’pi kecit go-vatseṣu vṛndāvanīya-pakṣiṣu ca | tṛtīyās tu tatra prādurbhāvābhāvenālabdha-manorathā eva babhūvur yathā lakṣmy-ādaya iti | tal-līlā-parikarānugatitām eva tat-prāpti-niyamanāt.

“There are three types of eternally beloveds of Kṛṣṇa in the heavenly planets – those who purely follow the līlā-parikaras (eternal associates of Kṛṣṇa)  according to their own vāsanās (spiritual aspirations), those who worship themselves as these associates (ahaṅgropāsanā) and those who do not follow Kṛṣṇa's associates. Some devatās in the first group become dear friends of Śrīdāma and Subal, while some Devis become hearts friends (prāṇa sakhīs) of gopīs like Śrī Rādhā while again others become friends or girlfriends of Nanda and Yaśodā etc. The second group enters (merges) into these associates of Kṛṣṇa, like Drona merged with Nanda, Dharā with Yaśodā and Vasu with Uddhava. Seers (ṛṣis) may also merge with the cows, calves, birds etc. of Vṛndāvana. The third group do not have their desires fulfilled (do not attain these associates) due to a lack of appearance (of the appropriate feeling and attitude), examples are Lakṣmī and others. The rule for attaining an associate of Kṛṣṇa is allegiance to him or her.”

yūthādhipātve‘py aucityaṁ dadhānā lalitādayaḥ |
sveṣṭa-rādhādi-bhāvasya lobhāt sakhya-ruciṁ dadhuḥ 

Though Lalitā, Viśākhā, Padmā and Śaibyā are capable of being leaders, because of their mood of serving other leaders like Rādhā, they have a taste as friends of leaders. Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi 3.61

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.3 śrīmaj-jīva-gosvāmi-caraṇānāṁ vyākhyānāt rukmiṇy-ādīnāṁ hlādinī-śaktitve’pi na mahā-bhāva-rūpatvaṁ vraja-devīnāṁ śrī-rādhāyā evāṁśa-bhūtānāṁ mahā-bhāvāṁśa-rūpatve’pi mahā-bhāva-sāra-bhūta-mādana-bhāgābhāvān na mahā-bhāva-svarūpatvam | yathā nada-nadī-taḍāgādīnāṁ jalāśayatve’pi na jaladhitvam

“Rukmini and others, though being of the pleasure potency hlādinī śakti, do not have mahābhāva. The women of Vraja, particles of Rādhā, are particles of mahābhāva, but they are not the svarūpa of mahābhāva since they lack the essential portion of mahābhāva called mādana. Rivers, streams and ponds, though reservoirs of water, are not like the ocean.”

A bit hard to understand the simile with the ocean – it seems the pond has the same quality but not the same quantity as the ocean, so this simile would suggest the other gopīs also have mādana mahābhāva but just in a smaller amount, but that is not the case.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.5, which quotes the famous yathā rādhā priya viṣṇos verse, praising Śrī Rādhākuṇḍa - 

tataś ca viṣṇor vyāpakasya rādhāyā ātma-buddhi-dehendriyādikam āśliṣya sthitasya sataḥ kṛṣṇasya yathā rādhā priyā viṣṇor jala-sthala-sopāna-nikuñjodyāna-kusuma-phala-vihaṅgama-kūjitādiṣu snānāvagāhanāsana-śayana-vihāra-darśanāvaghrāṇāsvādana-śravaṇādibhir vyāpya sthitasya priyam | nanu tasyānyā api gopyaḥ priyāḥ śrūyante | satyam | kintu sarva-gopīṣu viṣṇoḥ prakaṭitānanta-prakāśatvena tā api sarvā āśliṣya sthitasyāpi tasyānta-vallabhātvaṁ lakṣayatīty āyātam | yato rādhikā-yūtha evāyaṁ modano na tu sarvataḥ [u.nī.15.176] iti | tad-yūthasya sarva-yūthebhya utkarṣam uktvā – sarva-bhāvodgamollāsī mādano’yaṁ parāt paraḥ | rājate hlādinī-sāro rādhāyām eva yaḥ sadā || [u.nī.15.219]

(The word Viṣṇu mentions in the śloka conventionally means ‘all-pervading’) “Just as Rādhā is dear to Kṛṣṇa who pervades and embraces Rādhā’s soul, intelligence, body and senses - her kuṇḍa is similarly dear to Kṛṣṇa (viṣṇoḥ), who pervades the water, steps, groves, gardens, flowers, fruits, birds and their cooing by bathing, sitting, reclining, playing, seeing, smelling, tasting and hearing at that kuṇḍa. “But it is heard that other gopīs are also dear to Kṛṣṇa.” That is true, but this is included in the verse as it says they are very dear to Him too (atyanta ballabha) as He pervades (embraces) them all too in innumerable manifestations (forms). Because it is said rādhikā-yūtha evāyaṁ modano na tu sarvataḥ: modana exists only in Rādhā’s group (Ujjvala-Nīlamani.15.176), her group is also the best of all groups.”

Viśvanātha Cakravartī comments on UN 4.47, which shows that Rādhā is Kṛṣṇa’s dearest sweetheart (kṛṣṇa priyāvalī mukhyā)- tvad-vapuṣaḥ pṛṣṭhādy-eka-pradeśā api dṛṣṭvā māṁ svastimantaṁ kurvanti tāsāṁ tādṛśāpāṅga-bhaṅgyo’pi neti bhāvaḥ

(Kṛṣṇa says:) “Even one part of Your body, like Your back, makes me happy, unlike the willful glances of them (the other gopis).”

Jīva Goswāmī quotes unknown śāstra in U.N. 5.11-

parakīyā dvidāḥ proktā paroḍhā kanyakā tathā yātrādi-niratāny oḍhā kulaṭā galita-trapā kanyā tv ajātopayamā salajjā nava-yauvanā

There are two kinds of parakīyās: the paroḍhā (married to another man) and the kanyakā (unmarried). The paroḍhā is engaged in worldly affairs, is unchaste and devoid of shame. The kanyā is not married, is shy and of fresh youth."

UN 5.94 - ced iyaṁ preyasā hātuṁ kṣaṇam apy atiduḥśakā |
parama-prema-vaśyatvān mādhavīti tadocyate ||

If Kṛṣṇa cannot give up his lover for even a moment because he is controlled by her prema, the svādhīna-bhartṛkā is called mādhavī.

UN 7.80- dhavam upekṣya kaṭhoram iyaṁ puraḥ parimalollasitā kila mādhavī |
śrayitum utkalikā-valitādbhutaṁ nanu bhavantam upaiti hali-priya

“This fragrant Mādhavī-vine ignored her hard husband to take shelter of a wonderful Kadamba tree.”

2 comments:

  1. 28 october 2011 -
    Broken but blissful after full Girraj Parikrama on foot. Took 5 hours 50 minutes, without break. Got laddus, dalia and curry on the way [charity], the sand was not too hot, it was a perfect day. I asked for the boon nirvighne Ajanma vraje vAsa.............

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  2. Some of the pollution around Girraj is absolutely appalling - nowadays they have feasts with plastic plates, which are then strewn about afterwards by the 100s, no one picks them up or cleans them up. I saw this both around Santa Newas and around Jatipura. Also the water of Govinda Kund is so filthy with thick moss that after I took some of it on my head with my fingers, it took several washings to wash the filth off my fingers, only much later in the afternoon.

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