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Monday, October 31, 2011

Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi part 3

7.92 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - vastutas tu yadi sundara-prakṛtir api patir adāsyat tad api rucir nābhaviṣyat | mac-cetasaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaika-grāhitvād ity ābhyantaro vicāraḥ -
If the gopīs would cheat their husbands with Kṛṣṇa because they are ugly or nasty it would not be a compliment for Kṛṣṇa, so Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda says here: “Actually, even if my husband were beautiful in form or nature still I would have no taste for him. My heart is exclusively captured by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This is her inner consideration.”

8.66  Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - ahaṁ patra-hārī śrī-rādhāyā dūty asmi kim iti mayi lāmpaṭyaṁ tanoṣi | dūtyaḥ prāṇān varam arpayanti, na tu tanum iti dūtī-svabhāvaṁ jānāsy eveti sambhrāntāṁ rasāla-mañjarīṁ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ prāha—dūtī-paddhatim iti – This may have inspired Ānanda Gopāl Goswāmī in a similar purport on Vilāpa Kusumāñjali. 'Rasāla mañjarī told Kṛṣṇa - "I am a letter carrying messenger girl of Rādhā's - why are you fooling around with me? Dūtis can give their lives but not their bodies."

8.67 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - gṛhīta-vastraṁ śrī-kṛṣṇaṁ prati rati-mañjarī prāha—prasīdeti | he nirdaya, ahaṁ sampraty asustha-śarīrāsmīti bhāvaḥ - One should not make love while sick. Another instance of mañjarī bhāva being tad tad bhāvecchātmikā: "When Kṛṣṇa grabs Rati Mañjarī's cloth, she says: " Be merciful to me, O cruel one. Today I am feeling sick."

8.84 sakhyo`pi dvividhāḥ—śrī-kṛṣṇasyātilobhanīya-gātrā nātilobhanīya-gātrāś ca. tatra prathamāsu prathama evāgrahaḥ, dvitīyāsu dvitīya eva. sukumāryānayā svakāntāya kāma-samudāya-sampūrṇa-rati-dānāsamarthayā tad-arthaṁ vayam api niyujyāmahe tad asyāḥ sāhāyyaṁ kurma iti nāyikātve prathamā īṣad-āgrahavatyo bhavanti. dvitīyās tu sveṣu śrī-kṛṣṇa-lobhasyālpatāṁ jānatyaḥ svais tādṛśa-sāhāyyān atisambhavaṁ manyamānās tāṁ tat-sakhīś ca saubhāgyādhikāḥ sva-prayatnaiḥ śrī-kṛṣṇena sambhujyaiva tāṁ sukhayitum icchantyo nāyikātvena āgrahavatyo na bhavantīty - There are two kinds of sakhīs – those with bodies very desirable to Kṛṣṇa and others with bodies not so desirable for Kṛṣṇa. The first group is eager to please Kṛṣṇa directly, the others want to please Him indirectly [by serving other sakhīs]. ‘By this small girl it is impossible to fully satisfy all the lover’s desires, hence let us assist the heroine here."
They understand they are less desirable by Kṛṣṇa than the others, who are more fortunate. They do not desire to be nāyikās themselves.”
This does sound like mañjarī-bhāva, but it is neither confirmed or denied by Viśvanātha. I doubt it myself, because the same Viśvanātha writes in Kṛṣṇa Bhāvanāmṛta: (3.2-3): 

tā vidyud udyuti jayi prapadaika rekhā vaidagdhya eva kila mūrtibhṛtas tathāpi
yūtheśvarītvam api samyag arocayitvā dāsyāmṛtābdhim anusasnur ajasram asyāḥ

"Each line on these mañjarīs' toes defeats the bright splendour of lightning. They are cleverness personified and although they are qualified to be groupleaders of gopīs (yūtheśvarīs) they have no taste for this, but are always immersed in the nectar-ocean of Śrī Rādhikā's service."
From this it is very clear that the manjaris are supremely attractive themselves, so they do not seem to answer the description of the first group of sakhīs above.

8.88 The nitya sakhī or mañjarī refuses to enjoy with Kṛṣṇa – in his commentary, Viśvanāth Cakravartī writes - tvayā saha svāṅga-saṅga-sukhād api jāla-randhrādau śrī-rādhāṅga-saṅga-darśanotthaṁ sukham adhikam anubhūtaṁ man-manasā nahi labdhādhika-sukhā janā alpe sukhe pravartanta iti bhāvaḥ. tataś ca māstu tava sukhaṁ mat-sukhaṁ tu kurv iti śrī-rādhikā-datta-cara-mantraṇena śrī-kṛṣṇena sā balā sambhuktaiveti jñeyam ‘More than my own bodily pleasures with Kṛṣṇa I enjoy to peep through the slits of the kuñja to see Kṛṣṇa enjoying with Śrī Rādhā. Why would my mind accept a lesser happiness when a greater one is available? But then Śrī Rādhā may advise her: ‘Leave your own happiness and make Me happy instead. Then that girl had herself enjoyed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa anyway.”

8.115  Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā -  ābhīra, he abhimanyo sūrya-pūjāyāṁ snānādy-arthaṁ kapilā-dugdham apekṣitam atas tvaṁ gāṁ dugdhvā paya āgamaya ānaya | aruṇām iti | yā hi sarvāṅgeṣv aruṇa-varṇā, atha ca piṅgākṣī saiva pataṅgasya sūryasya priyā kapileti tām anyaḥ paricetuṁ na ṣakṣyatīty anyo na preṣaṇīya iti bhāvaḥ
In aṣṭakālīya līlā it is mentioned that Rādhikā is ordered to go out and get milk from a Kapila [brown] cow. From this commentary it becomes clear why – a cow which is red in all its limbs and has brown eyes is dear to Sūrya deva. Its milk is required for Sūrya pūjā.

8.120  Viśvanāth Cakravartī quotes Garuḍa Purāṇa:
śuṣkaṁ māṁsaṁ striyo vṛddhā bālārkas taruṇaṁ dadhi
prabhāte maithunaṁ nidrā sadyaḥ prāṇaharāṇi ṣaṭ
"Dry meat, an old woman, the sunrise, fresh yoghurt, sleeping or mating after dawn take away one’s life."

8.127 A kṛṣṇa snehādhikā sakhī does feel much for her sakhī-groupleader, but still feels slightly more affection for Kṛṣṇa .

8.131 Vice versa for the sakhī-snehādhikā. Kṛṣṇa will love you automatically if you love Rādhā.

8.137 – Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - nanu tāḥ katham anugamanānarhāḥ? ucyate rāgānugīya-bhakta-mate śrī-kṛṣṇād anyūna-prītimattayaivānujigamiṣitā gopī khalv anugamyate. tasmān nyūna-prītyāpy anugamane vācye vaidhād rāgasya ko viśeṣaḥ? bhaktānugatiṁ vinā vaidha-bhakter apy asiddheḥ. tasmāc chrī-kṛṣṇe`dhikā sakhī tad-anujigamiṣubhir janaiḥ śrī-kṛṣṇād anyūna-prīti-viṣayīkartavyā.
How are they to be followed? It is said that in the opinion of the rāgānugā-bhakta one should follow a gopī whom one loves not less than Śrī Kṛṣṇa. If one follows a gopī in spite of having less love for her than for  Kṛṣṇa  then what is the difference between vaidhi-bhakti and rāgānugā bhakti? Even vaidhi-bhakti fails to lead to perfection without following devotees. Hence in rāgānugā-bhakti, devotees who wish to follow a sakhī with more love for Kṛṣṇa should not have less love for that sakhi than for Kṛṣṇa."
From this it appears that following in the footsteps of a kṛṣṇa-snehadhika, bhakti is only rāgānugā bhakti if one loves the kṛṣṇa-snehādhikā rāgātmikā devotee more than Kṛṣṇa.

9.43 Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - 
"As long as there is no mixing of bhakti with the antaḥkaraṇa (subtle body of mind, intelligence, consciousness), the functions of the mind such as attachment and hatred will remain as material anarthas. When sulfur is added to mercury there is no immediate mixing, but after repeated rubbing, after a long time, they mix. Sulfur then gives up its original nature and takes a different form. Similarly the material nature of the antaḥkaraṇa is gradually destroyed and becomes spiritual. Just as sulfur and mercury eventually become one substance as collyrium, so bhakti and the antaḥkaraṇa become one as prema. Though mercury does not combine with other substances, sulfur transforms by rubbing into another form, and by heating, it gradually matures and takes on a unique form and name. The uncontaminated Lord, in the form of chanting or other processes, enters the antaḥkaraṇa endowed with attraction through the ears or other senses and rubbing against it by its power, makes the antaḥkaraṇa take on a spiritual form. By heating that combination till it matures to higher and higher states, it then attains the unique forms and names of prema, sneha, praṇaya, rāga, anurāga and mahābhāva. Just as the mature combination takes on varieties by mixing with favorable elements, so prema takes on forms such as dasya or sakhya by mixing with bhavas of a servant, friend, parent or lover. The prema of the sādhana-siddhas has been described in this way. What doubt is there then about the prema of the nitya-siddhas?

9.48- Viśvanāth Cakravartī's ṭīkā - 
"A follower of Vṛndā, a deity of the forest, curious about the conclusions of prema, asks “If Kṛṣṇa attains happiness by enjoyment with Candrāvalī, which is also your goal—to give him happiness--then why are you inimical to her? Why do you get angry when he frustrates your desires and meets with her?”
Rādhā teaches her the principle. "Candrāvalī can also mean the moon in the twelve months. The moon is always endowed with faulty marks. Or, she deals with Kṛṣṇa as a neutral party, because of having great respect. The moon is impure, having marks on its surface. She is devoid of the natural crookedness of prema, which moves crooked like a snake. By its nature the moon gives suffering, being cool. Or she is without intelligence. Or by her respect, friendliness is lost. The moon or she is skilful at closing the beautiful lotuses. Or the word vaidagdhi can mean the opposite. She is skilful at closing lotuses because of incompetence. She, the lotus, does not give happiness to the Kṛṣṇa-bee. The moon is brilliant in the night, not the day. In her mind (antara) she is joyful at seeing her faults as good qualities. She does not see her neutral nature as a fault. The moon appears (sphuraṇam) in the eastern direction (harer āśayaḥ). Or she has a slight appearance of desire for Kṛṣṇa, but not an actual desire. She should produce another form. Seeing the moon, or considering Candrāvalī, who can tolerate this? One can tolerate her on earth, but all will discover her malice. Therefore she should not criticize again. Let her be like that. Her relationship with Kṛṣṇa will be finished. It is not unsuitable that I hate her. What is tasty to eat, one takes and prepares. If someone produces occasions for taking things which are tasteless, then will one become angry or not at that person? Consider this and then tell me."
In this way she revealed the truth about prema.


  1. By finishing the tikas of Ujjvala Nilamani I now completed [I think] my studies of Gaudiya Vaisnava literature. It may take 2-3 more blogs.

    I picked up a Bengali copy of Sankalpa Kalpadrum and heard a charming Bengali Vilap kusumanjali path in Bhakta Nivas, though the pathak was a bit remote and the street noisy.

  2. It's getting too cold in the room in the daytime so I lay on the rope-bed in front of my room in the sunshine all afternoon, relishing my Sankalpa Kalpadrum after enjoying alu-parota-pakora feast. Seasons change fast in Vraja. Just days ago I was sweating and drinking 2.5 liters of water a day!