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Thursday, March 05, 2015

bhāvollāsa, dakṣa, gītā bhūṣaṇa and dhoṭis


THE BHĀVOLLĀSA-ISSUE –

Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu 2.5.128 -

api ca –
sañcārī syāt samona vā kṛṣṇa-ratyāḥ suhṛd-ratiḥ
adhikā puṣyamāṇā ced bhāvollāsā itīryate

Translation: Addenda: If the rati of the associates of Kṛṣṇa’s beloved directed to that beloved is equal or less than their rati directed to Kṛṣṇa, the rati directed to that beloved is called sañcāri, nourishing the rati towards Kṛṣṇa.  If the rati of the beloved’s associates directed to that beloved is greater than that directed to Kṛṣṇa, and is constantly increasing, though it is still a sañcāri-bhāva, it is called bhāvollāsa-rati.

bhāvollāsa is only about madhura rati, evaṁ madhurākhye rase tu (Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī and Viśvanātha Cakravartī’s ṭīkās, Bhānu Swami forgot to translate that in the purport to Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu 2.5.128). It is exceptional, so if there is greater love for the suhṛd (sakhī) than for Kṛṣṇa that is at least rādhā snehādhikā sakhi prema or mañjari prema. It can be seen as a sthāyibhāva because it appears in the sthāyibhāva-chapter of Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu. Viśvanātha Cakravartī’s comment on Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi 13.104, na tasyāḥ sañcāritvaṁ nāpi tasyāḥ sthāyitvam iti bhāvaḥ, “It is neither a sancāri-bhāva nor a sthāyibhāva“, means it is exceptional. Ānanda Gopāl Goswāmī ascribing it to manjarī bhāva alone is a matter of subjective loving vision.

WHO IS DAKṢA?
In no way the word dakṣa, or expert, which is one quality ascribed to the priya-bhakta by Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Bhagavad-Gītā (12.16), means ‚a devotee is expert in everything‘, in the sense of expertise in cooking or playing musical instruments. How can any external skill make one dear to Kṛṣṇa? It would mean that any great secular musician or cook would then be dear to Kṛṣṇa too? Let us look at the ācāryas‘ commentaries - Śrīdhar Swāmī comments on this word that it means analasaḥ, he/she is not lazy, Śrī Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa says it means sva-śāstrārtha vimarśa samarthaḥ, expert in discussing and understanding śāstra, while Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartī does not comment at all on this word.

SĀDHANA OUTSIDE THE DHĀMA -
Doing sādhana outside the dhāma is like swimming against the current – it is not impossible, but it is very hard. Doing sādhana in the dhāma is like sitting on a raft, putting it in the current and happily floating along with it.

GĪTĀ BHŪṢAṆA REVISITED -
In January, 2008 I blogged twice on Gītā-bhūṣaṇa, Śrī Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana’s commentary on Bhagavad-Gītā. I overlooked some nice comments at that time, which I am adding here. 
In verse 11.8 Kṛṣṇa gives Arjuna divya-cakṣu, divine eyes, to see His universal form, though rasikas consider that form inferior to Kṛṣṇa’s human form. Baladeva offers this comment – “You cannot see Me with a thousand heads, a form shining like a thousand suns at once, by your eyes which are accustomed only to My sweetness. Therefore, I give you celestial, heavenly eyes.  As I would put oil on My body in entering a swiftly moving stream, so I anoint your eyes suitably. See My majestic form (yogam aiśvaram) with those eyes. Yoga means “that which makes the mind concentrate (yujyate).” It should be understood, however, that though Kṛṣṇa gave celestial eyes to Arjuna, He did not give him a celestial mind. If He gave that type of mind to Arjuna, Arjuna would take pleasure in that celestial form.”
11.33 – Kṛṣṇa told Arjuna that all warriors he faces have already been killed by Him in advance – “Warriors such as Bhīṣma who cannot be conquered by the devas, have been defeated by Arjuna with ease! Such will be your fame. They have already been killed by Me, at the time of their offending Draupadī.” Later Baladeva comments that this includes Bhīṣma because he did not protest against the assault on Draupadī after the dice-game in Hastināpura.

DHOTI IN ŚĀSTRA -
I have something to add also to my first blog on Vaiṣṇava-dress, of March 16, 2012, where someone supposed the word dhoti is not in any śāstra. The word appears in Govinda Līlāmṛta 14.37 – vibhrac chrī dhaṭikāñcalaṁ ca “During Holi, Kṛṣṇa carried a lump of fragrant powder in the hem of His dhoṭī.” The word used in the verse is dhaṭi, but is pronounced nowadays as dhoti.

8 comments:

  1. Dear sir,
    I was wondering whether in Manjari bhava, the manjaris serve Radha Krishna as their maid servant, favourably aligned towards Srimati Radhika and derive pleasure through Their union only or do they also desire and relish sambhoga with Sri Krishna by the mercy of Sri Radha?

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  2. ananya śrī rādhā padakamala dāsyaika rasadhī
    hareḥ saṅge raṅgam svapana samaye nā'pi dadhati
    balāt kṛṣṇa kūrpāsakabhidi kim apy ācarati kā-
    py udāśrur meveti pralapati mamātma ca hasati

    (Vṛndāvana Mahimāmṛta 16, 94)

    The maidservants, that are exclusively devoted to the service of Śrī Rādhā's lotus feet, that are like an ocean of nectar, do not enjoy with Śrī Hari even in their dreams. When Kṛṣṇa forcibly pulls at their bodices they cry out: 'No, no!', while Rādhikā watches and laughs." Śrīmatī laughs here because of the kiṅkarīs' loyalty to Her service. The bee enjoys the flowers, not the buds (mañjarīs). The buds (mañjarīs) enhance the bee's thirst for the flowers. They are mañjarīs in name, mañjarīs in form and mañjarīs in nature! Śrī Rūpa is the bud of Śrī Rādhā's form (rūpa mañjarī), Śrī Rati Mañjarī is the bud of Śrīmatī love (rati), Śrī Vilāsa Mañjarī is the bud of Śrī Rādhā's love-play (vilāsa). Śrī Kṛṣṇa accepts defeat at their bhāva-niṣṭhā.

    rādhā raṅga lasat tad ujjvala kalā sañcāraṇā prākriyā
    cāturyottaram eva sevanam ahaṁ govinda samprārthaye
    yenāśeṣa vadhū janodbhata manorājya prapañcāvadhau
    nautsukyaṁ bhavad aṅga saṅgama rase'py ālambate man manaḥ

    (Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi Sakhi 88)

    One sakhī was picking flowers for making a vana-mālā and Kṛṣṇa, seeing her, told her: "O beautiful girl! Make your birth a success by joining Me for a while in this kuñja!" Hearing this, that sakhī (mañjarī) said: "O Govinda! I only want to serve while You make love with Śrī Rādhā, showing Your brilliant amorous skills on the stage of erotic dancing named Śrī Rādhā! All the girls of Vraja find the limit of perfection on the strength of this service, therefore, O Gokula-candra! My mind is never eager to relish the rasa of Your Anaṅga-saṅga (erotic union). Please just engage me in this long-desired service!"
    Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravartī writes in his 'Ānanda Candrikā' commentary on this verse: tvayā saha sāṅga saṅga sukhād api jāla randhrādau śrī rādhāṅga-saṅga darśanotthaṁ sukham adhikam anubhūtaṁ man manasā. na hi labdhādhika sukha jana alpe sukhe pravartante iti bhāvaḥ. "I relish more pleasure in witnessing Your sports with Śrī Rādhā in the kuñja looking through the holes in the vines than in personally enjoying with You. People don't endeavour for a smaller happiness when they can attain greater happiness!"
    Even Śrī Rādhā Herself fails in having them meet with Śrī Kṛṣṇa:

    tvayā yad upabhujyate murajid aṅga saṅge sukham
    tad eva bahu jānati svayam avāptitaḥ śuddha-dhīḥ
    mayā kṛta vilobhanāpy adhika cāturi cāryayā
    kadāpi maṇi mañjarī na kurute'bhisāra spṛhaṁ

    Śrī Rādhikā engaged one sakhī to make Maṇi Mañjarī meet with Kṛṣṇa, but that sakhī returned to Rādhā unsuccessfully, saying: "O Rādhe! Maṇi Mañjarī finds more happiness in Your meeting with Kṛṣṇa than in her own! Just see how pure her consciousness is! Although I expertly tried to tempt her to go out and meet Kṛṣṇa, she never desires this!" (Ujjvala Nīlamaṇi, sakhī prakaraṇa 89)

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  3. So sambhoga and viraha are meant for Sri radha alone. So are manjaris unmarried? And are Lalita Vishaka devis manjaris also?

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  4. No, sambhoga and viraha are also for the sakhis, it is called sambhogecchātmikā bhakti. Lalitā-Viśākha belong to this class - they are not manjarīs. Manjarīs are not married in our opinion.

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  5. So manjaris only serve Sri Radha Krishna and seek pleasure from their union and they have no 'iccha' for sambhoga and hence no viraha also. They are only found in the sakhis and Sri Radha Herself...

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  6. Each manjari serves under a sakhi and all of them exclusively serve Sri Radha

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  7. Is it possible for jivatmas to become a sakhi of Sri Radha?

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  8. Yes but this is not the point of Mahaprabhu's mission.

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