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Friday, October 31, 2014

Goloka, Svayam Bhagavan and Brahma Samhita

Bhakta – “Tattvavādis do not accept Goloka.”

Advaitadas –
“In the Bhagavad-Gītā, Kṛṣṇa speaks several times about "His Dhām", for example in 15.6: tad dhāma paramaṁ mama. What is meant by "dhāma paramaṁ mama"? It is logical that this is the abode of Kṛṣṇa, as the Gītā is a dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna (Not Viṣṇu, Rāma, etc). And 'Goloka' is just one of the words to indicate this very abode of Kṛṣṇa (“cow-world”). There are other words, such as, for example, 'Kṛṣṇaloka'. Is Goloka Vaikuṇṭha? Certainly. Rūpa Goswāmī teaches in Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu: siddhāntatas tv abhede 'pi śrīśa-kṛṣṇa-svarūpayoḥ “Philosophically there is no difference between Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu.” What is the problem in calling this special Vaikuṇṭha of Kṛṣṇa - 'Goloka'?  There is a spiritual Goloka where Kṛṣṇa's pastimes are eternal, and to think otherwise is māyāvāda – if they accept Kṛṣṇa then He must have an abode too. Śāstra says that each form of the Lord has His abode. There are 34 chapters in the 10th canto of the Bhāgavata describing Kṛṣṇa’s Vṛndāvan-pastimes, which eternally take place in the spiritual world, the highest abode of Kṛṣṇa, and it is not important how this abode is called - Goloka, Kṛṣṇa-loka or Vaikuṇṭha. Jīva Goswāmī quoted evidence for Goloka in Kṛṣṇa-sandarbha – first from Nārada Pancarātra –

tat sarvopari goloke śrī govindaḥ sadā svayam
viharet paramānandī gopī-gokula-nāyakaḥ

« Highest of all, in Goloka, Śrī Govinda always personally enjoys, in great bliss, as the Lord of the gopīs and Gokula. »

And from Mahābhārata, śānti parva 330.68-

evaṁ bahu-vidhai rūpaiś carāmīha vasundharām 
brahma-lokaṁ ca kaunteya golokaṁ ca sanātanam

The translation in KM Ganguly’s Mahābhārata – « In this way, O son of Kunti, assuming diverse forms do I rove at will through the Earth, the region of Brahma himself, and that other high and eternal region of felicity called Goloka.”

In the Bhāgavata (10.27.1) Goloka is mentioned as Indra’s world, but the above Mahābhārata quote cannot apply to that because the word sanātanam is there – eternal, while Indra’s world is not eternal. Furthermore, Goloka is mentioned many, many times in Brahma Vaivarta Purāṇa. The Madhvaites claim this is interpolated, but what is interpolated and what is not is very hard to ascertain. Brahma Vaivarta Purāṇa is mentioned in Bhāgavata 12.13.4-9 as having 18,000 verses.

Bhakta -
“Also the tattvavādīs challenge us, why we are calling Kṛṣṇa the highest? They say that "bhagavān svayam" is mentioned many times in the Bhāgavatam, about Dhanvantari and about Vāmanadeva -

tasyānucaritam upariṣṭād vistariṣyate yasya bhagavān svayam akhila-jagad-gurur nārāyaṇo dvāri gadā-pāṇir avatiṣṭhate nija-janānukampita-hṛdayo yenāṅguṣṭhena padā daśa-kandharo yojanāyutāyutaṁ dig-vijaya uccāṭitaḥ.

“The story of Bali will be told later. The Lord himself, guru of the whole universe, Nārāyaṇa, merciful to his devotee, stands at Bali’s door with a club. The Lord kicked Rāvaṇa ten thousand yojanas with his toe big toe, when Rāvaṇa came to conquer Bali.” (5.24.27)

Advaita Das:
“The word swayam here applies to akhila jagat guru, as well as that He Himself (swayam) stands guard. It does not say that Visnu is the original Personality of Godhead at all. By the way, this is one of many verses that show that Nārāyaṇa is jagat guru, not Balarām / Nitāi.” 

Bhakta – “Then they quote ‘dhanvantariś ca bhagavān swayam eva kīrtir’ (2.7.21)”

Advaitadas –
“Here swayam does not apply to bhagavan but to kīrtir - dhanvantariś ca bhagavān svayam eva kīrtir. This verse describes Dhanvantari. The Lord by the name Dhanvantari is the embodiment of fame (svayam kīrtiḥ). These verses were quoted out of context. They misplaced the adjectives in these two verses.”

Bhakta – “They are saying that Viṣṇu is not mentioned in the list of avatāras mentioned in the first canto of the Bhāgavata because He is the origin of the avatāras, and not an avatāra.”

Advaitadas –
“I quoted 'siddhāntatas tvabhede'pi' earlier. We admit that there's no difference between Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu, but rasenotkṛśyate kṛṣṇam, Kṛṣṇa's rasa is superior. Of the 336 chapters of the Bhāgavata, about 1/3 of them are about Kṛṣṇa alone.”

Bhakta -
“There is another verse -

samaḥ priyaḥ suhṛd brahman bhūtānāṁ bhagavān svayam
indrasyārthe kathaṁ daityān avadhīd viṣamo yathā (7.1.1)

Advaita Das
bhūtānāṁ bhagavān svayam - Again the same - He is Himself the Lord of all beings. It applies to bhūtānāṁ bhagavān, not just bhagavan.”

Bhakta –
patnī vikuṇṭhā śubhrasya vaikuṇṭhaiḥ sura-sattamaiḥ
tayoḥ sva-kalayā jajñe vaikuṇṭho bhagavān svayam (8.5.4)

Advaita Dās-
tayoḥ sva-kalayā jajñe vaikuṇṭho bhagavān svayam- He came there Himself, with His śakti. From the combination of Śubhra and his wife, Vikuṇṭhā, there appeared the Supreme Lord, Vaikuṇṭha, along with devatās called the Vaikuṇṭhas, who were his expansions.”
Here the Lord is pointed out as the origin of the devatās, not the origin of Kṛṣṇa.”

Bhakta – “My point is that why Kṛṣṇa cannot be vaikuṇṭho bhagavan svayam? That verse is not saying "viṣṇuloko bhagavān svayam". Also, are there other places where it is said 'ete cāṁśa kalā puṁsaḥ' in the Bhāgavata? That other avatāras are just aṁśas?”

Advaita Das
“Yes – It is like saying Laghu Vaisnava Tosani is 'Pleasing the light Vaisnavas' - applying laghu to Vaisnavas instead of to Tosani.”

Bhakta – “They claim Brahma Samhitā is written by Jīva Goswāmī to prop up his siddhānta.”

Advaitadās – “Not true - Rūpa Goswāmī quoted Brahma Samhitā twice in chapter 2.1 of his Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu, which was completed in 1541, when Jīva Goswāmi was just a child.”

1 comment:

  1. "Kṛṣṇa's rasa is superior."

    After reading Gita Govinda or any Vraja lila, how can anyone be attracted to Vishnu instead of Radha and Krishna?