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Sunday, November 14, 2010

Viśvanātha's nāma-tattva, part 1

Arriving at the Sixth Canto, we start with the important story of Ajāmila and his nāmābhāsa.
Here is the first part of the purports of Viśvanātha Cakravartīpāda on the story -

6.1.19   nātra bhakti-bhūmāpy apekṣaṇīya ity āha—sakṛd api, kiṁ punar asakṛt ? mano’pi, kiṁ punaḥ śrotrādi | tac ca mano guṇa-rāgi viṣayāsaktam, kiṁ punar guṇa-rāga-rahitam ? svapne’pi, kiṁ punaḥ sākṣāt tāvan-mātra-dhyānenaiva ? cīrṇaṁ niṣkṛtaṁ prāyaścittaṁ yais te | atra sakṛd ity ādi padaiḥ kasyacic chuddha-bhaktasya daivāt pāpānāṁ paunaḥpunye’py utkhāta-daṁṣṭoraga-daṁśānām iva teṣām akiñcitkaratvāt kuñjara-śaucavad ākṣepa-viṣayībhāvo’nucita eva—api cet sudurācāro bhajate māṁ [gītā 9.30] ity ādi vacanebhyaḥ

 “This purification does not even depend on the solid basis of bhakti. Even once remembering the Lord is sufficient, what to speak of many times. Even thinking by using the mind is sufficient, what to speak of hearing or uttering the name of the Lord. A mind which is materially attracted, sad guṇa rāgī, is sufficient, what to speak of a mind devoid of material attractions. Thinking even in dreams is sufficient, what to speak of meditation. Such persons have performed all atonements. From this statement the following should also be understood. Sometimes a pure devotee, by Fate, is seen to commit sin again and again, but that is insignificant like the bites of a snake whose poison-fangs were removed, he should not be reviled as taking an elephant’s bath, and it is improper to brand him/her a viṣayī, as it is said in the Bhagavad Gītā that api cet sudurācāro – “Even if a devotee is behaving very badly he is to be considered a sādhu.”

6.1.28-29trīn iti ajāmilena kṛtānām anantyānām api pāpānāṁ kāyika-vācika-mānasatvena traividhyāt traya eva yāmyā āgatāḥ, nārāyaṇa-nāmnaś caturakṣaratvāc catvāro viṣṇu-pārṣadā āgatā iti jñeyam | plāvitena plutatvaṁ nītena 

 ‘Three Yamadūtas came because the sins are performed with mind body and words. Four Viṣṇudūtas came because the name of Nārāyaṇa had four syllables."

6.2.8he nārāyaṇa, āya, sva-mātur aṅkāt mamāṅkam āgacchety apabhraṁśa-bhāṣayāpi jagāda, tadaivāgha-niṣkṛtaṁ kṛtam abhūd ity arthaḥ | caturakṣaram iti nārāyaṇa-nāmna eka-dvy-akṣareṇāpi sarva-pātaka-nāśo bhaved iti bhāvaḥ  

“Even chanting an abbreviated version of the name with just one or two syllables, as "Nārāyaṇa! Come from the lap of mummy to the lap of daddy!", destroys all sins.”

6.2.9-10 — "The chanting of the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu is the best process of atonement for a thief, for a drunkard, for one who betrays a friend or relative, for one who kills a brāhmaṇa, for one who indulges in sex with the wife of his guru or another superior, for one who kills women, the king, his father, or cows, and for all other sinful men. simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu, such sinful persons attract the attention of the Supreme Lord."

Viśvanātha’s long ṭīkā -
The name of the Lord may destroy sins, but how can nāmābhāsa be the atonement for thousands of grave sins which cannot be destroyed by thousands of twelve year vows?" stenaḥ means a gold thief. Chanting is the best atonement (suniṣkṛtam), since it destroys the root of sin. A twelve year vow of atonement, though it destroys the effects of sin, cannot destroy the root of sin. That is not the only result, because from chanting the name of the Lord, the Lord's mind dwells on that person who chants (tad-viṣayā-matiḥ). The Lord thinks, "This person belongs to me. 1 will always protect him." This is Śrīdhara Svāmī's meaning of the phrase.
The servants of Viṣṇu said, "Hearing his name being chanted, and remembering Ajāmila, the Lord ordered us to bring Ajāmila, who was chanting his name." Then how much more the Lord will remember a person who chants the Lord's name with a service attitude! This is the implication. To show this to the servants of Yama, the servants of Viṣṇu said that Ajāmila's chanting at the time of death had destroyed all his sins, but actually, from the first time that Ajāmila called his son Nārāyaṇa—out of all the times he called, all his sins had been destroyed. The rest of the chanting after that produced bhakti. The past tense of yad vyājahāra (he chanted) in verse 7 also indicates that from the first time he chanted the name, all sins had been destroyed. The word vivaśaḥ in that verse means "spontaneously, out of affection for his child."
"But after chanting repeatedly, he committed repeated sins such as going to the prostitute and drinking wine. In order to destroy those sins he had to chant at the end of his life, since there was again appearance of sin." This cannot be said, because it will be said later vaikuṇṭha-nāma-grahaṇam aśeṣāgha-haram: chanting the Lord's name destroys unlimited sins. (SB 6.2.16) The following verses also show that chanting releases one from the bondage of saṁsāra.

vartamānaṁ tu yat pāpaṁ yad bhūtaṁ yad bhaviṣyati 
tat sarvaṁ nirdahaty āśu govindānala-kīrtanāt 

"All sins in the present, past and future are quickly destroyed by chanting the name of Govinda, which is like fire." - Haribhakti-vilāsa 11.339

yan-nāma sakṛc chravaṇāt pukkaśo’pi vimucyate saṁsārāt 

By hearing one of your names once, even the outcaste is delivered from the material world. SB 6.16.44

naivam-vidhah puruṣa-kāra urukramasya
puṁsāṁ tad-aṅghri-rajasājita-ṣaḍ-guṇānām
citraṁ vidūra-vigataḥ sakṛd ādadīta
yan-nāmadheyam adhunā sajahāti bandham

Such power is not surprising from persons who have conquered the six senses by the dust from the lotus feet of the Lord, since even an outcaste becomes immediately free of bondage of karma by chanting the Lord's name even once. SB 5.1.35

Because there is no mention of a particular time span for the effect of nāmābhāsa to occur, it should be understood that by the first chanting there is destruction of all sins, all desires and as well, ignorance, which is the root cause, because only then sin will not reappear in the future.
"Why then did sin not leave Ajāmila after chanting the first time? How could he continue to be attached to the woman and commit sin lor so long, if all his sins had been destroyed?"
Like the karmas of the jīvanmukta which remain for some time simply as impressions, Ajāmila's sins which lasted till his death were like the bites of a toothless snake and did not generate results. Moreover the Lord himself will cause continuance of sin in order that other philosophies (karma-kāṇḍa etc.) will not be completely uprooted (since no one will have any faith at all in those processes). If one were to explain the scriptural statements concerning the powers of the name to be exaggerated praise of the Lord's name, then one would be committing offense. tathārtha-vādo hari-nāmni kalpanam: it is an offense to interpret the name or think its powers are exaggeration. (Padma Purāṇa)

nāmāśrayah kadācit syāt taraty eva sa nāmalah
nāmno hi satva suhrdo hy aparādhāt pataty adhah

One who takes shelter of the name at any time crosses material life by the name. One falls to hell from offense to the name of the Lord, who is the friend of all beings. Padma Purāṇa

artha-vādaṁ harer nāmni sambhāvayati yo naraḥ 
sa pāpiṣṭho manuṣyāṇāṁ niraye patanti sphuṭam 

"Those most sinful of men who interpret the name of the Lord fall to hell."
Kātyāyana Samhitā, Padma Purāṇa

yan-nāma-kīrtana-phalaṁ vividhaṁ niśamya
na śraddadhāti manute yad utārtha-vādam |
yo mānuṣas tam iha duḥkha-caye kṣipāmi
saṁsāra-ghora-vividhārti-nipīḍitāṅgam ||

"That person who, even after hearing about the wonderful results of chanting the Lord's name, refuses to develop sincere faith in the name, and on the contrary, interprets the name, is hurled by me into the deep gloom of material nescience alter being dragged through excruciating suffering." Padma Purāṇa

śruti-smṛti-purāṇeṣu nāma-māhātmya-vāciṣu
ye’rtha-vāda iti brūyur na teṣāṁ niraya-kṣayaḥ 

Persons who interpret the Śrutis, Smṛtis, and Purāṇas, which wonderfully glorify the Lord's name, stay in hell forever. (Jaimini Samhitā)

Thus from scriptures like Padma Purāṇa and Kātyāyana-samhitā there are thousands of statements showing fall-down from interpreting the name. Parīkṣit has just said:

kvacin nivartate 'bhadrāt kvacic carati tat punaḥ
prāyaścittam atho 'pārthaṁ manye kuñjara-śaucavat

After withdrawing from sin one commits the sin again. I think atonement is useless, like an elephant bathing. SB 6.1.10

He has condemned atonements because of seeing that the tendency for sin remains, but he does not criticize bhakti, though seeing sinful tendencies in some of the devotees.

yathā nāmabhāsa-balenājāmilo durācāro’pi vaikuṇṭhaṁ prāpitas tathaiva smārtādayaḥ sadācārāḥ śāstrajñā api bahuśo nāma-grāhiṇo’py artha-vāda-kalpanādi-nāmāparādha-balena ghora-saṁsāram eva prāpyanta  "Simply by chanting Lord Viṣṇu's name offenselessly the great sinner Ajāmila attained Vaikuṇṭha, but even the greatest scholarly smārta brahmaṇa or the greatest puritan will remain in this hellish  material world if he commits offenses like artha-vāda hari nāmna kalpanam (speculating another meaning out of the holy name). But one should not worry that everyone will immediately become liberated on seeing such power in the name. Though sin is completely uprooted just by chanting the name even once, in most cases the name shows its fruits to the world after some time, just as fruit trees bear fruit after some time only, not immediately. And in some cases the name does not show its effects at all, in order that the material scriptures (such as karma-kāṇḍa) are not completely destroyed (by loss of faith in them). Then, after doing this, the name lakes the person who has chanted without offense to the Lord's abode. This conclusion should be understood. I accept that because of offense to the name, those who interpret the Name as an exaggeration go to hell. However, if chanting the name destroys all sins, all karmīs, jñānīs, yogīs and bhaktas should not go to hell for illicit sex or violence if they chant. And if the name does not destroy all sin, all these people, and even the bhakta, should go to hell to suffer the results of their sin, even if they chant."
Though a merchant protects a person under his shelter according to the degree that the person surrenders to him, if the person offends him, the merchant becomes displeased with him and does not give protection to that surrendered person. But one should not think that the merchant is incapable of protecting him. And according to the degree that the offense diminishes, the merchant begins to show mercy to that person. When the offense is completely gone, the merchant shows all mercy. The name is similar. Those who take shelter of Bhakti-devi, representing the name, as a secondary practice, in order to bring out results of karma and jñāna, are called karmīs or jñānīs, even though bhakti is present in a minor position. This is according to the rule that things are named according to the predominant factor.' They are thus not called Vaiṣṇavas. By their natures they are offenders to the name in one aspect, for it is said dharma-vrata-tyāgāhutādi-sarva-śubha kriyā sāmyam api pramādaḥ: the eighth offense is to consider the name equivalent to dharma, vratas, sacrifices and other karma-kāṇḍa rites.

If considering the name to be equal to karma and dharma is an offense, then the offense is much more if one considers the name secondary to karma and dharma, being a mere limb of karma or dharma. Though recognizing that they have offended her, out of compassion, Bhakti-devi thinks, "Karma-yoga and these other processes should not be fruitless" since they have accepted a small portion of her shelter. Thus, though she has become only a limb of karma, she gives the results of karma, jñāna and other processes without obstruction. Similarly, when bhakti is a limb of atonement, she destroys the sins in those persons practicing atonement. It is not otherwise. And those who do not perform atonement go to hell to experience the results of their sins. However, Vaiṣṇavas do not need to perform atonement. Furthermore, if those persons commit other offenses, such as interpreting the name or committing offense to the devotee, and then perform dharma and other process, Bhaktidevi gives them no results for their efforts, even though she is still a limb of dharma and other processes.

ke te'paradhā viprendra nāmno bhagavataḥ kṛtāḥ
vinighnanti nṛṇāṁ kṛtyaṁ prākṛtaṁ hy ānayanti ca

O brāhmaṇa! Offenses to the name destroy men's pious actions and lead them to material world.
Padma Purāṇa, Brāhma-khaṇḍa

If those persons become free from offense and dedicate themselves to chanting or other bhakti processes, they will get results for their karma and jñāna in proportion to the destruction of offenses. However, with complete destruction of offense by association with devotees, attainment of the results of chanting is certain, by the direct mercy of Bhakti-devi.

"From the words of the servants of Yama it is understood that Ajāmila was previously involved in karma. (He was not a devotee, but performed bhakti secondarily, and therefore all his sins should not have been removed by chanting.)" That is true, and by sinful acts like drinking, his status as a brāhmaṇa was destroyed, what to speak of his pious acts of karma. It will be explained "Ajāmila was a brāhmaṇa who because of bad association had given up all brahminical culture and religious principles. Becoming most fallen, he stole, drank and performed other abominable acts. He even kept a prostitute." (SB 6.2.45) When his pious karmas were destroyed, his secondary bhakti was also destroyed. Then pure bhakti appeared when he called out the name of his son Nārāyaṇa."

"But if there is a scriptural rule that one should perform bhakti as a limb of karma or jñāna, how can that be offensive?" One should not recognize as authoritative scripture those statements which permit secondary bhakti out of mercy for persons of crooked mentality, who have no faith in bhakti but faith in karma and jñāna, and do not believe statements like "All processes accomplish their results by bhakti alone; by a particle of bhakti the greatest sins are destroyed."

In attaining Svarga through animal sacrifices by following rules, the fault of violence is not destroyed. Similarly though the offender attains the results of karma and jñāna by secondary bhakti according to rules, his offense is not destroyed.

Those offenders who accept a Vaiṣṇava guru by Vaiṣṇava initiation, take shelter of Bhakti-devi purely or as the primary process (but mixed), and then worship the Lord by chanting, are called Vaiṣṇavas. According to the degree of bhakti, they attain destruction of offenses, and according to the degree of Bhakti-devi's mercy, they attain the principal result of bhakti (prema). The Lord himself says:

yathā yathātmā parimṛjyate’sau
mat-puṇya-gāthā-śravaṇābhidhānaiḥ |
tathā tathā paśyati vastu sūkṣmaṁ
cakṣur yathaivāñjana-samprayuktam 

"To the degree that the ātma becomes purified by hearing and chanting my glories, a person is able to perceive my real form and qualities, and experience their sweetness, just as the eye when smeared with special ointment is able to see finer objects." SB 11.14.26

bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir
anyatra caiṣa trika eka-kālaḥ
prapadyamānasya yathāśnataḥ syus
tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭiḥ kṣud-apayo'nughāsam

Devotion, direct experience of the Supreme Lord, and detachment from other things—these three occur simultaneously for one who has taken shelter of Kṛṣṇa, in the same way that pleasure, fullness of the stomach and relief from hunger are experienced simultaneously, with each bite, for a person engaged in eating.
SB 11.2.42


śṛṇvatāṁ svakathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ puṇya śravaṇa kīrtanaḥ |
hṛdyantaḥ stho hyabhadrāṇi vidhunoti suhṛt satām 

"Kṛṣṇa, who purifies a person by the processes of hearing and chanting and who is the benefactor of the devotees who hear about him, enters the hearts of the devotees and destroys their sins." SB 1.2.17

By these statements it is understood that those persons who committed offense gradually ascend through the fourteen stages of bhakti. In those cases, faith and other steps are prescribed. And in this chapter also it is said guṇānuvādaḥ khalu sattva-bhāvanaḥ: chanting the Lord's glories is the process for purification. (SB 6.2.12) When all their offenses are gradually destroyed and they attain the Lord, they are liberated from this world.

niraparādhānāṁ tu bhagavat-prāptau nāsti vilambas teṣāṁ hi bhagavan-nāma-grahaṇaṁ vaikuṇṭhārohaṇaṁ ceti dve eva bhūmike, yathā ajāmilādīnām 

"For the offenseless there is no delay in attaining the Lord. For them there are just two stages – chanting and ascending to Vaikuṇṭha, like Ajāmila and others."
This comment shows clearly there are only two stages of chanting - pure chanting and offensive chanting - without a third stage, a 'clearing stage of nāmābhāsa'.


na vāsudeva-bhaktānām aśubhaṁ vidyate kvacit 
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-bhayaṁ vāpy upajāyate 

"The devotees of Vāsudeva have no misfortune at all. They surpass birth, death, old age and disease." Mahābhārata 13.135.131


sva-dharma-niṣṭhaḥ śata-janmabhiḥ pumān
viriñcatām eti tataḥ paraṁ hi mām |
avyākṛtaṁ bhāgavato’tha vaiṣṇavaṁ
padaṁ yathāhaṁ vibudhāḥ kalātyaye 

"A person fixed in dharma attains the post of Brahma after a hundred births and by more pious acts a person attains me. But the devotee attains the abode of Vaikuṇṭha after leaving his body, just as I reside there in another form. The devatās qualify to go there after destroying their subtle bodies." SB 4.24.29

However, some devotees without offense, who desire to attain a special prema, are delayed in attaining the Lord. For instance Jaḍa Bharata took three lives to attain the Lord.

Among those devotees having offense, if some, because of not worshiping the Lord properly, do not destroy previous sins, and continue to sin and to be offenders, they do not go to hell after leaving the body. Yama says:

sva-puruṣam api vīkṣya pāśa-hastaṁ 
vadati yamaḥ kila tasya karṇa-mūle |
parihara bhagavat-kathāsu mattān 
prabhur aham anya-nṛṇāṁ na vaiṣṇavānām 

Bhāgavata Māhātmya 6.99

Yamarāja, seeing his follower with noose in his hands, says in his ear: "Do not take devotees who are mad after Kṛṣṇa-kathā. I am the master of other men, but not the Vaiṣṇavas."


te deva-siddha-parigīta-pavitra-gāthā
ye sādhavaḥ samadṛśo bhagavat-prapannāḥ
tān nopasīdata harer gadayābhiguptān
naiṣāṁ vayaṁ na ca vayaḥ prabhavāma daṇḍe

Do not approach those who have surrendered to the Lord, who see everything equally, who have proper conduct and who are praised with pure narrations by the devatās and Siddhas, since they are protected by the club of the Lord. We, including Brahma and even time, do not have power to punish them. SB 6.3.27

The servants of Yama say:


prāhāsmān yamunā-bhrātā sādaraṁ hi punaḥ punaḥ |
bhavadbhir vaiṣṇavās tyājyā viṣṇuṁ ced bhajate naraḥ 

Yamarāja repeatedly has told us with care, "You must leave the Vaiṣṇavas"  (Padma Purāṇa)

Moreover the Lord himself says:


na hy aṅgopakrame dhvaṁso
mad-dharmasyoddhavāṇv api
mayā vyavasitaḥ samyaṅ
nirguṇatvād anāśiṣaḥ

O Uddhava! Because I have personally established it, this process of niṣkāma-bhakti is beyond the guṇas. Even by starting but not completing the process, there is no destruction of results. SB 11.29.20

Thus, since even the sprout of bhakti is imperishable, unaffected by sin and always productive, a person will definitely take birth only in order that bhakti bears leaves and fruit in the future, and not because of temporary sin and piety. na karma-bandhanaṁ janma vaiṣṇavānāṁ ca vidyate: the worshipers of Viṣṇu do not take birth due to karma. Thus after the destruction of sin and destruction of offenses by chanting the name, which is caused by impressions of previous bhakti, persons attain the Lord by the mercy of Bhakti-devi.


na vai jano jātu kathañcanāvrajen
mukunda-sevy anyavad aṅga saṁsṛtim
smaran mukundāṅghry-upagūhanaṁ punar
vihātum icchen na rasa-graho janaḥ

Oh! The person who serves Mukunda will never under any condition return to the material world, unlike practitioners of other processes. Remembering the embrace of the Lord's lotus feet, eager for that taste he has experienced, he will not desire to give up those feet again. SB 1.5.19

In the above verse anyavat means "like those practicing karma." The devotee will not attain the world of piety and sin (caused by karma), but will accept the world of happiness and distress given by the Lord.


tvad avagamī na vetti bhavad-uttha-śubhāśubhayor
guṇa-viguṇānvayāṁs tarhi deha-bhṛtāṁ ca giraḥ
anu-yugam anv-ahaṁ sa-guṇa gīta-paramparayā
śravaṇa-bhṛto yatas tvam apavarga-gatir manu-jaiḥ

When a person realizes you, he no longer cares about his good and bad fortune arising from past pious and sinful acts, since it is you alone who control this good and bad fortune. Such a realized devotee also disregards what ordinary living beings say about him. Every day he fills his ears with your glories, which are recited in each age by the unbroken succession of Manu's descendants, and thus you become his ultimate salvation. SB 10.87.40

Those who have not destroyed offenses to the name will continue to experience the undestroyed effects of sin. When, by increase of bhakti by practicing it, the offenses to the Name are destroyed, the root of sin will be destroyed and the person will immediately attain the Lord. But then, in order to increase the bhakti, those devotees may even take one, two or three life times to attain the Lord. The "material happiness" seen in those devotees arises from the practice of bhakti (it is not karma). It is said:

dharmasya by apavargyasya nārtho'rthāyopakalpate
nārthasya dharmaikāntasya kāmo lābhāya hi smṛtaḥ

The material results are not suitable as the goal for the person dedicated to higher spiritual goals. The desire of the person dedicated to the higher path is not for attainment of material assets. SB 1.2.9

The "suffering" seen in those devotees is given by the Lord, who is skillful at increasing the devotion of his devotee, and who is like a doctor who makes a person fast and gives bitter medicine tor increasing the patient's appetite.

yasyāham anugṛhṇami hariṣye tad-dhanam śanaiḥ
tato 'dhanaṁ tyajanty asya svajanā duḥkha-duḥkhitam

If 1 especially favor someone, I gradually deprive him of his wealth. Then the relatives and friends of such a poverty-stricken man abandon him. In this way he suffers one distress after another. SB 10.88.8

To be continued......

7 comments:

  1. It may also be concluded that Ajämila, who was the son of a brähmaëa, was accustomed to worshiping Näräyaëa in his youth because in every brähmaëa's house there is worship of the näräyaëa-çilä. This system is still present in India; in a rigid brähmaëa's house, there is näräyaëa-sevä, worship of Näräyaëa. Therefore, although the contaminated Ajämila was calling for his son, by concentrating his mind on the holy name of Näräyaëa he remembered the Näräyaëa he had very faithfully worshiped in his youth. SB 1.1.26 bhaktivedanta purport Çréla Vijayadhvaja Tértha remarks: anena putra-sneham antareëa präcénädåñöa-baläd udbhütayä bhaktyä bhagavan-näma-saìkértanaà kåtam iti jïäyate. "Ajämila chanted the name of Näräyaëa because of his excessive attachment to his son. Nevertheless, because of his past good fortune in having rendered devotional service to Näräyaëa, he apparently chanted the holy name in full devotional service and without offenses." SB 6.1.30 bhaktivedanta purport quote. So can we conclude from this that Ajamila was not just some karma kanda brahmana, who had never worshiped the Supreme Lord Narayana (as we have heard one baba explaining)? And also then what of VCT comment on 6.2.13 '' From the moment he named his son Narayan, Ajamila performed all atonements.''
    By chanting in his youth he had already done all atonements of future sins? And, ''servants of Visnu said that AjAmila's chanting at the time of death had destroyed all his sins, but actually, from the first time that AjAmila called his son Narayana—out of all the times he called, all his sins had been destroyed. The rest of the chanting after that produced bhakti.''VCT on SB 6.2.9-10 - sins were already destroyed in youth- even future sins, by chanting in his youth. And again in the same tika ''by the first chanting there is destruction of all sins, all desires and as well, ignorance, which is the root cause, because only then sin will not reappear in the future."'

    ReplyDelete
  2. the same anonymous here

    to clear the question

    ''it may also be concluded..... youth'' is from BBT purport not 1.1.26, but 6.1.26

    question is :is this correct

    vijayadhvaja tirtha confirms

    but then VCT comments on 6.2.13 that ''Ajamila did all atonement by naming his son Narayana.'' in his youth Ajamila had already done all atonement, of all future sins also

    Then VCT on 6.2.9 ''visnudhutas said that chanting of ajamila at death had destroyed sins'' these sins had already been destroyed, and the desires , and ignorance.

    these VCT comments contradict BBT and vijayadhvaja tirtha comments?

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  3. Anon, Vijayadhvaja Tirtha does not mention previous Narayan Bhakti of Ajamile, he just says prAcInAdRSTa-balAd, on the strength of previous karma or fate.

    "And again in the same tika ''by the first chanting there is destruction of all sins, all desires and as well, ignorance, which is the root cause, because only then sin will not reappear in the future."'

    This is explained in the blog by VCT. VCT's comments thus do not contradict the tika of Vijayadhvaja, only that of the BBT.

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  4. prAcInAdRSTa-balAd, on the strength of previous karma or fate.

    then what this means?

    Vijayadhvaja Tértha remarks: anena putra-sneham antareëa präcénädåñöa-baläd udbhütayä bhaktyä bhagavan-näma-saìkértanaà kåtam iti jïäyate. "Ajämila chanted the name of Näräyaëa because of his excessive attachment to his son. Nevertheless, because of his past good fortune in having rendered devotional service to Näräyaëa, he apparently chanted the holy name in full devotional service and without offenses."

    this is the BBT translation.

    Then how this is to be translated?

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  5. Anon I have already answered your question. The BBT translation of Vijayadhvaja is correct, minus 'in having rendered devotional service to NArAyaNa'. I need to remind you also that Vijayadhvaja is a Madhvaite and not a Gaudiya. There are substantial differences in philosophy between the two schools.

    prAcIna = ancient
    adRSTa = destiny, fate, luck
    balAt = on the strength of

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  6. Such a beautiful dissertation from Sri Visvanatha!

    A propos, this is Bhanu Swami's translation. I cannot find where you mention this, Advaita Prabhu...

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  7. Adi Purush Das, thank you for reminding me and the audience of this. radhe radhe!

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