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Thursday, April 05, 2007

Kṛṣṇa Bhāvanāmṛta, Chapter Two


Final installment of the whopping update of my Kåñëa Bhāvanāmṛta translation. Please read this with my published translation at hand:

Chapter Two:
2.2 In the footnote there is a very elaborate description of Lalitä sakhé from different scriptures.

2.4 Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma adds: sambhoga samaye cüòä veëyor grahaëena vyäkñiptam – ‘Their crowns and braids have been dishevelled or loosened during Their amorous enjoyment.”

2.5 In the footnote there is a similar elaborate description of Viçäkhä sakhé from different books.
Madhusüdana Väcaspati here explains that this verse shows it is a draw between Rädhä-Kåñëa.

2.7 In the öékä Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma explains that the word anumodana means ‘relishing’, which changes the translation: “In the unblinking eyes of Lalitä and the other anurägé sakhés the luster (rüpa maïjaré) of the Divine Pair (‘s clothes and ornaments) became more and more relishable (aidhata).“ tathä ca tat bhüñaëädikaà vinaiva tatkälénotpannät saundaryäd eva çobhätiçayo jäta “At that time They look even more beautiful without ornaments (naked).”
In an elaborate footnote all the information on Rüpa and Rati Manjaré is given, as well as a full definition of maïjaré bhäva.

2.9 Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma adds: nidräveçe sati padärthäntara bhojanasya kañöadäyakatve péyüña baöyä ati komalatvännätra bhojanänuküla.. “This péyüña bäöé (a type of soft cake or pie, not a nectar-drink as I originally wrote) is more convenient for them to eat than other eatables, since They are still half asleep.”

2.11 Madhusüdana Väcaspati comments that the nectar eases the pain of the piercing by the arrows. Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma says it is anyonyaà puñöau – it nourishes both of Them.
A song by Jïänadäsa is added in the footnote.

2.13 Rüpa Gosvämé is quoted here as saying Rädhikä’s jewelled earrings are called Rocana and Her nose-ring is called Prabhäkaré.

2.16 Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma comments that paraspara mukha darçanärthaà kià darpaëaà märjitaà cakära – “Have they cleaned Their mirror-like faces so that They could see Each others faces better (in these mirrors)?”

2.17 The most famous maìgalärati songs are added in a footnote here, like maìgala ärati yugala kiçora- ratiraëe çrama-yuta, nägaré nägara, plus this really charming song:

çeña rajané kusuma çayane, baiöhalo duhu jägi;
alase avaça, rahalo räi çyäma uraja lägi
sahaje caturä, saba sakhégaëa, milalo samaya jäni;
nirakhata doha, vadana kamala, divasa saphala mäni

            “At the end of the night, Rädhä and Kåñëa woke up and sat up. Exhausted, Räi leaned against Çyäma’s chest. The naturally clever sakhés then met, knowing the time had come (to serve). Beholding the lotus-faces of the Divine Pair, they considered their day to be a success.”

ratana pradépa, ghåta samayuta, ägara dhüpa jväli
lalitä liyata, käïcana jhäri, diyata néra òäri
maìgala ärati kusuma varikhe, gokula sukumäré
jaya jaya våñabhänu kumara, jaya girivaradhäré
upajilo koto änanda sarase virasa mukha vibhaìga
nirakhata dohe caraëäravinda, govinda däsa bhåìga

            “A jewelled ghee lamp and a standard with incense were burning and Lalitä sakhé poured water from a golden jar. The tender girls of Gokula showered flowers over Våñabhänu Mahäräja’s daughter and Girivaradhäré. So much bliss was there! Govinda Däs is like a bee that relishes the honey-like view of Their lotus-like feet.”

2.18 Kåñnadeva Särvabhauma adds: äjahära änétavaté çré kåñëa dvärä yütheçvaryä veçärtham -  “The maidservant brings the ornaments, understanding that Çré Kåñëa Himself will today dress Yütheçvaré Rädhä.”

2.21 In a footnote it is said that Rädhikä’s mirror is named Maëibändhava, but in Rädhä-Kåñëa Gaëoddeça Dépikä Rüpa Gosvämé calls it ‘Sudhäàçu darpa-haraëa’, he who removes the pride of the moon’. Kåñëa’s mirror is indeed named ‘Çarad Indu’ (autumn moon).

2.22 Premamayé Rädhikä’s loving pride increased at this, and then naturally She assumes the mood of svädhéna bhartåkä, the heroine who rules over Her lover. The footnote quotes the definition of this svädhéna bhartåkä from Ujjvala Nélamaëi.

2.25 Bhänumati is not just the name of a sakhé-maïjaré but it also means ‘the lustrous one’, as an adjective for the hair, according to Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma (kacävalé kédåçé bhänumaté käntimaté).  Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma promises that all the maïjarés’ names in this book will have double meanings – atra granthe sarvatra kiìkaréëäà çleñeëaivollekha

2.26 Same for Rägalekhä Maïjaré – it is the name of a maidservant but also means that the substances like musk, sandal and vermilion are all made of the essence of divine passion (anuräga-çreëyä samyäg vibhävitair väsitaiù). Rädhikänäth Gosvämé’s translation of this verse was totally insufficient and incomplete, and thus my translation of the same, too.
The correct translation should be: “After this, Rägalekhä Maïjaré prepared musk, sandal and vermilion that is filled with anuräga, placed them on different golden trays along with a brush to make pictures, and placed all this before Kåñëa. Çré Kåñëa smiled and reappeared before Rädhikä to make Her tilaka on Her forehead with the brush. Although this was His first attempt, He at once defeated hundreds of expert decorators with His expert drawings. First He made a black circle of musk, then He made an eight-petalled lotus with the pollen of vermilion and within that He placed some sandal-spots.” All this is from Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma’s öékä. A sample is: prathamataù kasturikäyäù çyämaà maëòalaà tasya caturdikñu keçareëäñöadala kamala racanä madhye madhye candana binduù. “First he makes a çyäma circle of musk, then he makes an eight-petalled lotus with keçara (vermilion), and in between sandal spots.”

2.27 Labaìga maïjaré is here also identified with clove-buds (labaìga puñpasya maïjaryä), of which she crafts Rädhikä’s earrings. She hands these to Kåñëa, who praises her expertise in crafting a hundred times.  At that time Labaìga Maïjaré brings a cup with eyeliner and a golden pencil to apply it to Rädhikä’s eyes with, and Kåñëa is doing just that then. There are three footnotes to this verse, one giving a full description of Labaìga Maïjaré, one describing the Täöaìka earrings (shaped like peacocks, lotus flowers or crescent moons), and one naming Rädhikä’s eyeliner pencil as ‘Narmadä’.

2.30 In the footnote it is said that Lélä Maïjaré is none other than Maïjuläli Maïjaré. Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma has an interesting öékä here: prasädhanasya arthaù prayojanaà sambhogas tasya pratipädane jïäpane unmukhyo yä çré rüpa lélä raténäà maïjaryaù mukhe yasya saù “The luster of form, pastimes and amorous attraction (rati) shone in Kåñëa’s face, indicating His desire for amorous enjoyment.” The names of Rüpa Rati and Léla Maïjaré are all hidden in here.

2.31 The signs were deliberately wiped out by Hari’s chest.

2.32 In a footnote it is explained that of the four types of sambhoga, samåddhimän is the most intense and it takes place after meeting in a dream, distant journey of the lover, viparéta viläsa, bhojana kautuka (dinner!), sleeping together and svädhéna bhartåkä. Sambhoga here takes place after svädhéna bhartåkä.  Songs are quoted from Ghanaçyäma Däs and Govinda Däs.

2.34 There is a song by Yadunandana in the footnote.

2.35 There is a song by Govinda Däs in the footnote.

2.36 Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma comments: kiìkarégaëasya sähäyyaà vinä sakhi prativyaktavyasya vikäçäsambhavät “Without the help of the maidservants it is impossible to make the sakhés forget what has happened. (that is why She made them loyal to Her with Her arched eyebrows)”

2.43 It is not Rädhä-Kåñëa, but Their dharma that gave up its body at Prayäga.

2.46 The conventional meaning was wrongly translated by me. It should have been: “”Behold this young brahmacäré! To experience the bliss of the full Brahman he has subdued mäyä and took shelter of Yoganidrä. Fully liberated souls are worshipping Mukti-Çré to become eligible for liberation and then sit on a great seat of yoga. It seems this king of yogés has attained siddhi!”

2.49 It should be: (Kåñëa said:) “It is clear that your dear sakhé has attained greater yoga siddhis! Look! Even on My chest there are beautiful moonbeams, that destroy the illusion of darkness and indicate Her experience of the bliss of Brahman!”

2.59 Ref. Räy Çekhara song # 5. There is also a nice pada by Yadunandana here.

2.60 Kakkhati is admonished here in Madhusüdana’s translation, which is not backed up by either the müla or the öékä – ‘Alas! Kakkhati! What have you done? Are you a stone or so? With your false thunderbolt-words you destroyed such a festival which delights the eyes! You have no affection or sensitivity at all!”

2.64 There is a debate here between Çaìkä (anxiety, about the obstacles) and Autsukya (eagerness for further union). Çäìkä says: “It is better to give up the desire for bodily union altogether now.” Autsukya, however, says: “Why? If there is no apparent reason for breaking the union, then let there be mutual bodily satisfaction!” As long as Jaöilä is not in sight Çaìkä is somewhat in check and seems to be defeated by Autsukya. The Vijaya-mäla (victor’s garland) in the form of Kåñëa’s arm on Rädhikä’s shoulder, is a sign of Autsukya’s victory.

2.66 Here, as in many other verses, Madhusüdana Väcaspati adds a lengthy emotional commentary, which, in my opinion, is a bit distracting and unnecessary, especially since it is not found either in the çloka nor in the öékä. “Their embrace” in the original translation should, of course, be “Each other’s embrace”. A song by Mädhava Ghoña is quoted here to illustrate the intense scene.

2.67 Madhusüdana explains that just as innocent citizens get scared of thugs when there is no longer a king around to protect them, the gopés also get scared when the thug-like sunrise removes their protector, the dark night.

2.68 Normally the lotus flowers rejoice when their friend the sun rises, but not so for the lotus-like gopés, who now lose their lover. “Cupid failed to shoot his darts” means that fear of Jaöilä contracts their lusty desires.

2.69 Now Çaìkä finally defeated Autsukya (see verse 64). Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma explains that ‘Vraja’ means ‘the nikuïja’ (because all of this takes place in Vraja anyway).

2.70 In all these verses ‘fear’ is the combatant called Çaìkä. Madhusüdana admonishes Çaìkä as follows: “Alas! Alas! Even the stones would melt if they saw this scene of separation! O heartless Çaìke! What have you done? Why have you separated this golden vine from the neck of the Tamäla tree? Why have you ruined the sweet meeting of these two moons? Tell me Çaìke! Why have you broken the festival of the eyes of the loving devotees? Oh what a heartbreaking scene!” (Follows regular translation)

2.71 What is added to the regular translation between brackets comes from the Sanskrit comment of Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma, and is strangely not included by Madhusüdana, who otherwise adds so many of his own elaborations.

2.72 The first sentence, between brackets, can be ignored.

2.73 apära ruk means, according to Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma, ‘endless luster’ and (giving) endless pain. The warm tears blurred Kåñëa’s vision and made it hard for Him to find His way. He also lost His intelligence, so it was hard for Him to find the way and made Him likely to fall on the way.

2.74 Ref. Räya Çekhara song # 7.

2.76 A song is quoted by Govinda Däs.

2.79 yoga means union with Kåñëa, that caused Rädhikä to be absorbed in the nectar of His form, taste and voice. Now, however, She is separated and She tastes poison (kälaküöaà viñaà adarçayat). In the añöäìga-yoga-context nirveda paddhati means ‘self-condemnation’, which is a part of the teaching of renunciation. Acyutänanda means the joy of liberation or the joy of union with Kåñëa. viyoga or falling down from yoga-principles leads to custums that are opposed to the Vedas and result in the poison (kälaküöa) of death.

2.80 Kåñëadeva Särvabhauma  explains that anuräga parabhägavaté does not mean ‘Supreme Goddess’, as I wrongly translated, but para-bhäga means excellence, so it is “She who excels in anuräga (constant passion).”
Madhusüdana says Rädhikä couldn’t understand because She was too upset.
In the footnote a song is quoted from Känu Däs.

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