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Friday, March 23, 2007

Kṛṣṇa Bhāvanāmṛta, chapters 10-13


Chapter Ten

Unless one is a knower of the text it is highly recommended to keep my English translation of Kṛṣṇa Bhāvanāmṛta at hand, in order to follow these additional notes:

10.1 Madhusūdana Vācaspati adds: "The sakhīs were absorbed in different types of rasālāpa (rasika discussions)."

10.6 samajñāṁ means kīrtīṁ, so 'Who does not desire to become famous in such a wonderful way?'


10.8 Kṛṣṇadeva Sārvabhauma: kṛṣṇena yatnāt grāhitaṁ yan maunaṁ tat hriyā naisargikaṁ svabhāva siddhaṁ prāptāṁ - 'For Kṛṣṇa it is difficult to keep quiet but for Rādhā it is natural for She is bashful by nature." tayā svādhīna bhartṛkayā rādhayā alaṅkṛtaṁ sāṅgaṁ vibhrat "Kṛṣṇa sat down to Rādhā, who was in svādhīna bhartṛkā mood."

10.12 I made a mistake here too. I wrote 'When we ask ṭhem what happened They get scared", but Kṛṣṇadeva Sārvabhauma says: vayaṁ vibhimaḥ yataḥ prabhuṣṇu "They are the Lord, we are scared to ask Them." Madhusūdana says:"They are the Lord, we are scared to ask, besides, They are in meditation (and shouldn't be disturbed)!"

10.15 Madhusūdana translates as follows: "If that lusty Kṛṣṇa turned Śrī Rādhā into His form with his mantra japa, then who knows who is going to be next?"

10.41 Madhusūdana comments at nr. 41: "Restlessness, childishness and stubbornness are unfavorable to mokṣa, and yet they can be found in Rādhikā's eyes, hairs and breasts and caused them liberation - that is very amazing!"

Kṛṣṇadeva Sārvabhauma adds to verse 42: śleṣeṇa dhavaḥ patir mā sāyujyado bhavet - 'Your husbands cannot bestow such sāyujya to you."

10.47 Nāndīmukhī smiled and said: "Lalite! Are you ever deprived of the embrace of She (or He) whom you and your millions of chaste friends are constantly worshipping - and for whom you are calling the two of us? I think you are surely speaking lies!"

10.51 bhoḥ iti sāmānya śabdena rādhākṛṣṇayoḥ sambodhanam - 'With the word 'Your' Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa are both addressed -in Rādhā's case it means the fulfillment of desire, that is that Kṛṣṇa managed to deceive Her sakhīs and thus fulfilled His desire. ladbhā asmākaṁ kṛṣṇadvārā viḍambanarūpa nijārtha siddhir yayā. They knew it was Rādhā but pretended that they thought She was Kṛṣṇa.

10.53 Madhusūdana adds: "It was as if Rādhikā hadn't been aware of what had taken place all this time so far."

10.56 vihāya tāṁ tāvad aviśvasatyo - 'We left Him because we didn't believe Him. By the mercy of Fate we were saved -our hearts proved it to us - as soon as we saw Him our hearts were filled with fear and hesitation - we couldn't remain free from fear for even a moment!"

10.57 Vṛndā said: "You can now see for yourselves whether this is your sakhā or sakhī (Kṛṣṇa or Rādhā)!"

10.59 Pun: 'You desire the end of Dvāpara yuga (and the beginning of Kali yuga) for then all the sādhus fall down. There will surely be an increase of svadharma (sva dharma means 'ones own virtue' but it can also be dissected as su adharma - 'nice irreligion', as in Kṛṣṇadeva's ṭīkā : tava svadharmajaṁ pakṣe suṣṭhu adharmajam.

10.63 Kṛṣṇadeva Sārvabhauma adds: pūrva kṛta viḍambanasya vyaktāśaṅkayā lalitādayaḥ kiñcid vaktuṁ na śaknuvanti 'Lalitā and the sakhīs couldn't say anything because they didn't want to reveal how they deceived each other earlier in this pastime." ataḥ śrīkṛṣṇa eva niḥśaṅkatayā āha - "Śrī Kṛṣṇa then spoke out fearlessly."

10.66 The desire vine of Vṛndāvana is Śrī Rādhā - iti śrutvā vṛndāvana-kalpavallī rādhā smitaṁ dadhe (Kṛṣṇadeva). Her desire that Her sakhīs would again have aṅga saṅga with Kṛṣṇa were now fulfilled - tathāca punarapi tābhiḥ sahāṅgasaṅgobhavatviti bhāvaḥ (Kṛṣṇadeva). In a lengthy footnote the famous CC verses 'rādhāra svarūpa kṛṣṇa prema kalpalatā sakhīgan hoy tār pallava puṣpa pāta' are quoted and its original verse from the Govinda Līlāmṛta (10.16) too. "Rādhā is millions of times more happy when Her girlfriends meet with Kṛṣṇa than if She would meet Him Herself."

Chapter 11

A nice pada by Uddhava Dās about the Jhulan Līlā is added to 11.15:

rādhākuṇḍa sannidhāne, harṣa varṣada vane, bakula kadamba taru-śreṇī
bāṅdhiyāche dui ḍāle, rakta paṭṭa ḍori bhāle, mājhe mājhe mukatā khicani

"Close to Rādhākuṇḍa, in the forest named 'Delighting the monsoon', there are some Bokul and Kadamba trees. Swings are suspended from the branches of these trees with red silken ropes, adorned with pearl strings."


puṣpa-dala cūrṇa kori, sūkṣma vastra mājhe bhori, kusuma tuli nirakhiyā.
pāṭāra upare muḍi, ḍuri bandha konā cāri, kṛṣṇa āge uṭhilena giyā

"Pillows made from crushed flower petals that are tied in fine cloth, cover the plank of the swing, that is tied with ropes on all four corners. Kṛṣṇa is the first one to mount the swing."


rāi kara ākarṣaṇa, kori ati harṣa mana, tulilena hindola upori
karapuṭe āṅti ḍori, dolā paṭe pada dhari, samullāsa mukhī mukha heri

"Pulling at Rādhā's hand He joyfully brings Her on the swing. Holding the ropes of the swing with His hands He looked at the face of Samullāsa-mukhī (Rādhā with a gleeful face)."

heno kāle sakhīgaṇe, kori nānā rāga gāne, puṣpera ārati duhu koilo
e uddhava dāsa bhaṇe, sabe nirmañchane, atiśaya ānanda bāḍhilo

"At that point the sakhīs began to sing songs in different rāgas and performed Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa's flower-Arati. Uddhava Das sings - there was a great increase of bliss in this worship."

Added to 11.21:


joto sevā-parā, sakhī sucaturā, ki dibo upamā tāra
ati anurāge, māthe bāndhi pāge, sājaye vividha hāra

'With whom can I compare all those sakhīs that were expert in and dedicated to their service?With great loving attachment they tied a turban on (Kṛṣṇa's) head and decorated (both) with various necklaces."


ānanda atula, karpūra tāmbūla, diyā mukha pāne cāya
haraṣita cite, dolā dolāite, lalitā viśākhā cāya

"In matchless bliss they stare at the faces of the Divine Pair and place betel leaves in Their mouths. Joyfully Lalitā and Viśākhā push the swing."


śārīra añcala, kaṭīte bandhana, suchānde kiṅkiṇī diyā
cakra hoiyā kāche, rohe āge pāche, dui pada āropiyā

'They tie their veils into the waist of their sārīs with their jingling waist-bells and stand before and behind the Divine Pair in a circle."


āra dui sakhī, samaya nirakhi, hindolā viśrāma sthāne
tāmbūla sampuṭe loiyā karapuṭe, e dāsa uddhava bhaṇe

Uddhava Dās sings: "Two other sakhīs, seeing the time fit, took a basket with betel-leaves in their hands (and stood by) at the swing's resting place."

Added to 11.23:

Rāgiṇī jaya jayanti

manera ānanda, sakhī manda manda, jhulāyato duhuṅ sukhe
vega avaśeṣa, pāiyā avakāśe, tāmbūla deyāi mukhe

"Blissfully the sakhīs reduce the speed of the swing, to the pleasure of the Divine Pair. Now that the swing has slowed down they find the opportunity to place betel leaves in Their mouths."

āra sakhīgaṇa, sugandhi candana, parāgādi loiyā kore
nāgara nāgarī, aṅgera upori, borikhe ānanda bhore

"Other sakhīs take fragrant sandal paste and flower pollen within their hands and blissfully shower this over the bodies of our Hero and Heroine."

kona sakhīgaṇa, koroye narttana, mohana mṛdaṅga bāy
vividha yantrete, rāga tāna tāte, ālāpi susware gāy

"Some sakhīs dance and play enchanting mṛdaṅga-drums, singing along with the rhythms and tunes of different musical instruments with nice voices."

heriyā vihvala, deva nārīkula, ūrdhva pothe sobe rohe
puṣpa boriṣaṇa, kore anukṣaṇa, e dāsa uddhava kohe

"Seeing this, the goddesses in the sky become ecstatic as they hover in the sky. Uddhava dāsa says: They are showering flowers all of the time!

11.33-38: Padakartā Uddhava Dās was born in the early 18th century (at the end of Viśvanātha's life) and was very inspired by Viśvanātha's book, which is clear through his descriptions of the Līlā of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa's garlands touching each other during the swinging and Them seeing Each others' reflections within Each others chests. The publisher quotes songs by Uddhava Dās to that extent in the footnotes to these verses.

Another nice one by Uddhava Dās comes at 11.37:


nāgara ati vege dulāya, athira rāi sakhī niṣedhaye tāya.
dhani vigalita veṇī; śithila rāi kuca kañcuka uḍani
maṇi ābharaṇa khosai, uḍaye vasana heri nāgara hasai.
śramajale tanu bhorai, kanayā kamala kiye makaranda jhorai
ati uparūpa śobhā, uddhava dāsa bhana kānu manolobhā

"Nāgara Kṛṣṇa swings so forcefully and fast that Rāi's sakhīs forbid Him. Rādhikā's braid and blouse loosen and Nāgara laughs when Her jewel ornaments fall off and Her garments fly up. Her body is studded with sweat drops, making Her look like a golden lotus exuding drops of honey. Uddhav Dāsa sings of Kṛṣṇa's great desire aroused by this extraordinary beauty."

11.46 Ref. Rāy Śekhara song # 61.
Song added to 11.48:


atiśaya charama, gharama-yuta duṅhu tanu, dolā korolo suthira
śrī rati mañjarī, cāmara kore dhori, mṛdu mṛdu koroto samīra

"Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa's bodies were studded with sweat-drops as the swing was put to a halt. Śrī Rati Mañjarī took a fan in her hand and gently fanned them."


lalitādika sakhī, heri sudhāmukhī, kusuma-hi korolo nichāi
dolā soiye taba, rāi utarāla, kusumāsana paro nāi

"Seeing the nectar-faced One(s), Lalitā and the other sakhīs offered flowers. Rādhā then stepped off the swing and sat down on a flower seat."


rāi vāme kori, baiṭhalo nāgara, dāsīgaṇa koru sevā
vāsita jala, upahāra ādi joto, yā koro sevana jebā

"Nāgara Kṛṣṇa seated Rādhā on His left while the maidservants rendered various services to Them, offering Them scented water and whatever other services were required."


karpūra tāmbūla, vadana-hi toikhone samaye jogāi,
uddhava dāsa, koroto pada sevana, sakhīgaṇa iṅgita pāi

"They offered Them camphor-laced betel leaves at the right time while Uddhava Dās served Their lotus-feet on the sakhīs' indication."

11.51 Ref. Rāy Śekhara song # 62.

Chapter Twelve:

12.21-22 yathā brāhmaṇa kṣatriyādyāśramiṇo janā grāme kramaśaḥ eka pradeśe brāhmaṇā anya pradeśe kṣatriyādayo vasanti  "The flowers all stay in their own places just as in villages Brahmins, Kṣatriyas etc. all have their own allotted quarters."

12.47 The Śuka is in the kalpa-taru (not mentioned by me in the original translation).

At the end of the chapter a song is added by Rādhā-mohan Thākura:


bhrama-i gahana bane yugala kiśora, saṅgahi sakhīgaṇa ānande bhora
sakhī e kohe punaḥ hero sakhi, doṅhe doṅhā daraśane animekha āṅkhi

'The Divine Pair rambled on in the deep forest, blissfully accompanied by Their girlfriends, who encouraged each other to stare at Them as They also stared at Each other with unblinking eyes."


taru sab pulakita bhramarera gaṇa; saurabhe dhāyalo chāḍi phula-vana
śrama bhare baiṭhalo mādhavī kuñja; rāi mukha kamale paḍalo alipuñja

"The trees were all studded with goosebumps and the bees gave up the flower patches to run after Their fragrance. Tired of wandering, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa sat down in a grove of Mādhavī flowers, where bees landed on Rādhikā's lotus-like face."


līlā kamala hi kānu tāhā vāri; madhusūdana geo kohoto ucāri
eto śuni rāi virahe bhelo bhora; koho rādhā mohana anurāga ora

"Kṛṣṇa chased them away with His play-lotus, saying loudly: 'Madhusūdana (the bee, or Kṛṣṇa) is gone!" Hearing this, Rādhikā became engrossed in feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa. Rādhā-mohan says: "That is the limit of transcendental passionate love!"


13.28 Song added by unknown author:


navīna kiśorī sakhī nava madhupāne, mado preme bhrānta netra pralāpata kṣaṇe
la la lalite pa pa paśya rādhācyuta; sa sa sakala saṅga lālasā yāite
vividha vipina mama mahīra sahite; ga ga ga gagana kona la la la lambite

"This fresh adolescent girl became drunk from drinking the honey punch and began to speak like mad, with bewildered eyes - la la la lalite, loo loo look at Rādhā and Acyuta, the fo-fo-fo-rest is rotating with the earth and the sky."


vikaca ambuja jini mukha padmagaṇa; tārapara matta bhṛga kore ākarṣaṇa
madhupāne matta hoilā rādhā nitambinī; madana spṛhāte kore śayana vāñchani

"The face of Rādhā, with the nice buttocks, defeats the blooming lotus, so it naturally attracts drunken honeybees who became mad after drinking its honey. Desiring amorous pastimes, She then reclined on the bed."


sevā parā sakhī tārā nānā sevā kore; doṅhāke loiyā gelā śayanera ghare
kusuma śayyāte duhuṅ korolo śayana; nija nija kuñje śuilena sakhīgaṇa

"The dedicated sakhīs rendered various services, taking the Divine Pair into the bedroom. The Divine Pair reclined onto Their bed of flowers, while the sakhīs took rest in their own groves themselves."

13.34-37 The amorous relationship of Kṛṣṇa with the mañjarīs described here is not supported by my lineage, nor by any of the main Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava lineages.

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