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Friday, October 31, 2014

Goloka, Svayam Bhagavan and Brahma Samhita

Bhakta – “Tattvavādis do not accept Goloka.”

Advaitadas –
“In the Bhagavad-Gītā, Kṛṣṇa speaks several times about "His Dhām", for example in 15.6: tad dhāma paramaṁ mama. What is meant by "dhāma paramaṁ mama"? It is logical that this is the abode of Kṛṣṇa, as the Gītā is a dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna (Not Viṣṇu, Rāma, etc). And 'Goloka' is just one of the words to indicate this very abode of Kṛṣṇa (“cow-world”). There are other words, such as, for example, 'Kṛṣṇaloka'. Is Goloka Vaikuṇṭha? Certainly. Rūpa Goswāmī teaches in Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu: siddhāntatas tv abhede 'pi śrīśa-kṛṣṇa-svarūpayoḥ “Philosophically there is no difference between Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu.” What is the problem in calling this special Vaikuṇṭha of Kṛṣṇa - 'Goloka'?  There is a spiritual Goloka where Kṛṣṇa's pastimes are eternal, and to think otherwise is māyāvāda – if they accept Kṛṣṇa then He must have an abode too. Śāstra says that each form of the Lord has His abode. There are 34 chapters in the 10th canto of the Bhāgavata describing Kṛṣṇa’s Vṛndāvan-pastimes, which eternally take place in the spiritual world, the highest abode of Kṛṣṇa, and it is not important how this abode is called - Goloka, Kṛṣṇa-loka or Vaikuṇṭha. Jīva Goswāmī quoted evidence for Goloka in Kṛṣṇa-sandarbha – first from Nārada Pancarātra –

tat sarvopari goloke śrī govindaḥ sadā svayam
viharet paramānandī gopī-gokula-nāyakaḥ

« Highest of all, in Goloka, Śrī Govinda always personally enjoys, in great bliss, as the Lord of the gopīs and Gokula. »

And from Mahābhārata, śānti parva 330.68-

evaṁ bahu-vidhai rūpaiś carāmīha vasundharām 
brahma-lokaṁ ca kaunteya golokaṁ ca sanātanam

The translation in KM Ganguly’s Mahābhārata – « In this way, O son of Kunti, assuming diverse forms do I rove at will through the Earth, the region of Brahma himself, and that other high and eternal region of felicity called Goloka.”

In the Bhāgavata (10.27.1) Goloka is mentioned as Indra’s world, but the above Mahābhārata quote cannot apply to that because the word sanātanam is there – eternal, while Indra’s world is not eternal. Furthermore, Goloka is mentioned many, many times in Brahma Vaivarta Purāṇa. The Madhvaites claim this is interpolated, but what is interpolated and what is not is very hard to ascertain. Brahma Vaivarta Purāṇa is mentioned in Bhāgavata 12.13.4-9 as having 18,000 verses.

Bhakta -
“Also the tattvavādīs challenge us, why we are calling Kṛṣṇa the highest? They say that "bhagavān svayam" is mentioned many times in the Bhāgavatam, about Dhanvantari and about Vāmanadeva -

tasyānucaritam upariṣṭād vistariṣyate yasya bhagavān svayam akhila-jagad-gurur nārāyaṇo dvāri gadā-pāṇir avatiṣṭhate nija-janānukampita-hṛdayo yenāṅguṣṭhena padā daśa-kandharo yojanāyutāyutaṁ dig-vijaya uccāṭitaḥ.

“The story of Bali will be told later. The Lord himself, guru of the whole universe, Nārāyaṇa, merciful to his devotee, stands at Bali’s door with a club. The Lord kicked Rāvaṇa ten thousand yojanas with his toe big toe, when Rāvaṇa came to conquer Bali.” (5.24.27)

Advaita Das:
“The word swayam here applies to akhila jagat guru, as well as that He Himself (swayam) stands guard. It does not say that Visnu is the original Personality of Godhead at all. By the way, this is one of many verses that show that Nārāyaṇa is jagat guru, not Balarām / Nitāi.” 

Bhakta – “Then they quote ‘dhanvantariś ca bhagavān swayam eva kīrtir’ (2.7.21)”

Advaitadas –
“Here swayam does not apply to bhagavan but to kīrtir - dhanvantariś ca bhagavān svayam eva kīrtir. This verse describes Dhanvantari. The Lord by the name Dhanvantari is the embodiment of fame (svayam kīrtiḥ). These verses were quoted out of context. They misplaced the adjectives in these two verses.”

Bhakta – “They are saying that Viṣṇu is not mentioned in the list of avatāras mentioned in the first canto of the Bhāgavata because He is the origin of the avatāras, and not an avatāra.”

Advaitadas –
“I quoted 'siddhāntatas tvabhede'pi' earlier. We admit that there's no difference between Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu, but rasenotkṛśyate kṛṣṇam, Kṛṣṇa's rasa is superior. Of the 336 chapters of the Bhāgavata, about 1/3 of them are about Kṛṣṇa alone.”

Bhakta -
“There is another verse -

śrī-rājovāca
samaḥ priyaḥ suhṛd brahman bhūtānāṁ bhagavān svayam
indrasyārthe kathaṁ daityān avadhīd viṣamo yathā (7.1.1)

Advaita Das
bhūtānāṁ bhagavān svayam - Again the same - He is Himself the Lord of all beings. It applies to bhūtānāṁ bhagavān, not just bhagavan.”

Bhakta –
patnī vikuṇṭhā śubhrasya vaikuṇṭhaiḥ sura-sattamaiḥ
tayoḥ sva-kalayā jajñe vaikuṇṭho bhagavān svayam (8.5.4)

Advaita Dās-
tayoḥ sva-kalayā jajñe vaikuṇṭho bhagavān svayam- He came there Himself, with His śakti. From the combination of Śubhra and his wife, Vikuṇṭhā, there appeared the Supreme Lord, Vaikuṇṭha, along with devatās called the Vaikuṇṭhas, who were his expansions.”
Here the Lord is pointed out as the origin of the devatās, not the origin of Kṛṣṇa.”

Bhakta – “My point is that why Kṛṣṇa cannot be vaikuṇṭho bhagavan svayam? That verse is not saying "viṣṇuloko bhagavān svayam". Also, are there other places where it is said 'ete cāṁśa kalā puṁsaḥ' in the Bhāgavata? That other avatāras are just aṁśas?”

Advaita Das
“Yes – It is like saying Laghu Vaisnava Tosani is 'Pleasing the light Vaisnavas' - applying laghu to Vaisnavas instead of to Tosani.”

Bhakta – “They claim Brahma Samhitā is written by Jīva Goswāmī to prop up his siddhānta.”

Advaitadās – “Not true - Rūpa Goswāmī quoted Brahma Samhitā twice in chapter 2.1 of his Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu, which was completed in 1541, when Jīva Goswāmi was just a child.”

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

4 Instances of siddha deha in Śrīmad Bhāgavat

4 Instances of siddha deha in Śrīmad Bhāgavat 

Nārada Muni in Śrīmad Bhāgavat 1.6.27-8-

evaṁ kṛṣṇa-mater brahman nāsaktasyāmalātmanaḥ
kālaḥ prādurabhūt kāle taḍit saudāmanī yathā

"O brāhmaṇa Vyāsa! Concentrating only on Kṛṣṇa, not attached to material enjoyment and pure in mind, the time of receiving my spiritual body occurred simultaneously with that of giving up my material body, like lightning flashing simultaneously with lightning."

prayujyamāne mayi tāṁ śuddhāṁ bhāgavatīṁ tanum 
ārabdha-karma-nirvāṇo nyapatat pāñca-bhautikaḥ

"Having been awarded a transcendental body befitting an associate of the Lord, the body made of five material elements, with karmas relating to the present body, fell away."

Śrīdhar Swāmī ṭīkā - bhagavatā mayi prayujyamāne nīyamāne – the word prayujyamāne means ‘the siddha deha is brought by the Lord’. anena pārṣada-tanūnām akarmārabdhatvaṁ śuddhatvaṁ nityatvam ity ādi sūcitaṁ bhavati: the bodies of the associates of the Lord are pure, without prārabdha-karmas, and eternal.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī ṭīkā - "The Lord previously promised hitvāvadyam imaṁ lokaṁ gantā maj-janatām asi: giving up this low body you will become my associate. (SB 1.6.23)  At the time of being made to accept a body which was śuddha-sattva (śuddhām) because it was not a material body and because it belonged to the Lord (bhāgavatīṁ), my material body (pāñca-bhautikaḥ) fell away. Giving up my material body and attaining a spiritual body were simultaneous, like the expression “I am walking while the cows are being milked.” The Lord’s own words were hitvāvadyam imaṁ lokam. The use of the verb form hitvā (giving up the material body) in this case indicates simultaneously giving up the material body while receiving the spiritual body. It is said:    

kvacit tulya-kāle ’pi upaviśya bhuṅkte ṛṇat-kṛtya patati cakṣuḥ saṁmīlya hasati mukhaṁ vyādāya svapitīty ādikam upasaṅkhyeyam -

There are examples in which the participles indicate simultaneous actions as in sitting down and eating, assuming debts and falling from esteem, closing the eyes and laughing, lowering the head and falling asleep. (Bhāṣā-vṛtti)."

Dhruva undergoing transfiguration, his human body turning into a spiritual body on the spot, in Śrīmad Bhāgavat 4.12.29 –

parītyābhyarcya dhiṣṇyāgryaṁ
pārṣadāv abhivandya ca
iyeṣa tad adhiṣṭhātuṁ
bibhrad rūpaṁ hiraṇmayam

"Circumambulating and worshipping the plane which brought him to Dhruvaloka, an outpost of Vaikuṇṭha, offering respects to the two associates of the Lord, assuming a golden form, Dhruva desired to board the plane."

Ajāmila in Śrīmad Bhāgavat 6.2.43 -

hitvā kalevaraṁ tīrthe
gaṅgāyāṁ darśanād anu
sadyaḥ svarūpaṁ jagṛhe
bhagavat-pārśva-vartinām

"After seeing those forms, Ajāmila gave up his body at this holy place on the Gaṅgā River and immediately attained a spiritual body as an associate of the Lord."

Śrīnātha Cakravartī, disciple of Advaita Prabhu, comments in his Caitanya Mata Mañjuṣā-ṭīkā – sadyo’vyavadhānenaiva – sadya means seamlessly, (this happens) without a break, immediately.

Gajendra says in Śrīmad Bhāgavat 8.3.19 –

yaṁ dharma-kāmārtha-vimukti-kāmā
bhajanta iṣṭāṁ gatim āpnuvanti
kiṁ cāśiṣo rāty api deham avyayaṁ
karotu me 'dabhra-dayo vimokṣaṇam

"Persons desiring dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa worship the Lord and attain the desired destination. What to speak of other benedictions, they also receive a spiritual body. May that Lord of unlimited mercy liberate me and bestow such a spiritual body."

To my knowledge there are no more references in Śrīmad Bhāgavata of the siddha deha.